The Benson Latin American Collection

Collection of Uruguayan Political Propaganda, 1963-1984



Descriptive Summary

Creator Uruguay
Title Collection of Uruguayan Political Propaganda
Dates: 1963-1984
Abstract Propaganda flyers, pamphlets, official documents, newsletters, communications, and correspondence created primarily during the presidencies of Jorge Pacheco Areco and Juan Maria Bordaberry. The documents were created by and about a broad range of organizations and interest groups, such as the Tupamaros and the Convención Nacional de Trabajadores, as well as the government of Uruguay.
Accession No. 2005-13
OCLC Record No. 268855095
Extent 1.5 linear feet, 1 oversize box
Language Spanish
Repository Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Historical Note

The political and ideological struggles in Uruguay during the late 1960s and early 1970s produced many ephemeral publications which were used by various organizations and by the government for a variety of purposes: to state policy, express opinions, advocate causes, question or denounce the views of others, urge fellow citizens to act, advertise meetings, strikes, and demonstrations, and support political candidates.

Several unions and political organizations emerged from the political and economic crisis in Uruguay in the 1960s, including the Partido Nacional, Partido Demócrata Cristiano, Partido Comunista, Frente Izquierda de Libertad, Convención Nacional de Trabajadores – CNT, and the clandestine urban guerrilla movement, Movimiento de Liberación Nacional - Tupamaros. Aimed at protecting the common citizen, the Tupamaro movement began by robbing banks, gun clubs and other businesses in the early 1960s and distributing the stolen food and money among the poor in Montevideo.

When President Oscar Gestido died in December 1967, Vice President Jorge Pacheco Areco succeeded him. Within one week of taking office, Pacheco issued a decree banning all leftist groups and their press. He also implemented a new monetarist policy in 1968. The CNT and other groups protested the new economic policies, leading the government to repress strikes, work stoppages, and student demonstrations. The death of Liber Arce, a university student, during one of the demonstrations served as a catalyst for various protest groups, particularly the Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Uruguay – FEUU. Pacheco responded by creating a military state, imprisoning and torturing political dissidents, and brutally repressing demonstrations.

During this period, the Tupamaros grew in strength, and their actions, including robberies, denunciations, kidnappings, and killings, shook the country and became known worldwide. Conflicts escalated between the government and the Tupamaros and other leftist organizations until 100 Tupamaro prisoners escaped in 1971 and Pacheco empowered the army to take charge of all counter-guerrilla activity.

During the national elections in 1971, the leftist organizations, including the Partido Comunista, Partido Socialista, and Partido Demócrata Cristiano, united to form the Frente Amplio to oppose the political sectors that supported Pacheco’s reelection. The Partido Nacional split and liberal members of the party supported the reformist program of a new movement, Por la Patria, led by Senator Wilson Ferreira Aldunate. In a highly contested election, Pacheco’s handpicked successor, Juan Maria Bordaberry Arocena, was elected in November and sworn in as president in March 1972.

Bordaberry’s administration continued the policies of its predecessor, inciting protest from education, political, business, and grass roots organizations. After a bloody shoot-out with the Tupamaros in April 1972, Bordaberry declared a state of internal war and suspended all civil liberties. By the end of the year, the army had decisively defeated the Tupamaros. The military, with the support of Bordaberry, dissolved the General Assembly in June 1973. Bordaberry established a de facto dictatorship that banned the CNT and other alleged Marxist-Leninist organizations, and quelled dissident activities by university students.

The military regime restricted freedom of the press and association, as well as party political activity. Thousands were accused of politically motivated crimes and imprisoned. Many were tortured. Amnesty International calculated that in 1976 Uruguay had more political prisoners per capita than any other nation on earth. During these years, approximately 10 percent of Uruguay's population emigrated for political or economic reasons. In June 1976, Bordaberry was forced to resign after submitting a proposal to the military calling for the elimination of political parties and the creation of a permanent dictatorship with himself as president.

In 1977 the military government made public its political plans to purge political parties, submit a new constitution, and give the military virtual veto power over all government. In 1980, the armed forces decided to legitimize themselves and were defeated when Uruguay's citizens went to the polls. After the electoral defeat of the military's constitution, retired Lieutenant General Gregorio Alvarez Armelino (1981-85), one of the leaders of the coup, became president. After several more years of political and economic crisis, the military acquiesced to the relegalization of the left in 1984 and democratic elections were held in 1985. That same year the Tupamaro were reorganized as a political party.

Works Referenced:

Country Studies. “A Country Study: Uruguay.” Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/uytoc.html (accessed October 16, 2008).


Scope and Contents Note

The collection is comprised of the propaganda flyers, pamphlets, official documents, newsletters, communications, and correspondence created primarily during the presidencies of Jorge Pacheco Areco and Juan Maria Bordaberry by and about various Uruguayan political, education, business, and grass roots organizations, the government of Uruguay, and International Organizations. Materials date from 1963 to 1984, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1968-1974, and measure 1.5 linear feet. The collection is arranged into four series: Uruguayan unions, political, education, business, and grass roots organizations; Uruguay Government; International Organizations; and Oversize Materials.

The first series,    Uruguayan unions, political, education, business, and grass roots organizations, is arranged alphabetically by organization name. This series contains flyers, pamphlets, official documents, newsletters, communications, and correspondence created by and about various organizations. Key organizations include Convención Nacional de Trabajadores – CNT, Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Uruguay – FEUU, Frente Amplio – FA, Partido Comunista, Partido Nacional – PN, Por la Patria, and the Tupamaros – Movimiento de Liberación Nacional.

Series two,    Uruguay Government, contains official documents, newsletters, communications, and correspondence created by the government of Uruguay. These documents concern, among other things, education, the economic situation, political parties, and constitutional guidelines.

Series three,    International Organizations, contains correspondence from various international organizations related to the political situation in Uruguay. Key organizations include Amnesty International, Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos de la Organización de los Estados Americanos, and International Commission of Jurists.

The fourth series houses    Oversize Materials. It consists of items that were separated from series one, Uruguayan unions, political, education, business, and grass roots organizations, because of size. Photocopies of the originals can be found in the original folders from which the documents were removed.


Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Unrestricted.

Use Restrictions

Standard copyright restrictions apply.


Index Terms

The Collection of Uruguayan Political Propaganda are classified under the following Subject Headings in the University of Texas Libraries catalog:
Subjects (Persons)
Bordaberry, Juan Maria
Ferreira Aldunate, Wilson, 1919-
Subjects (Organizations)
Convención Nacional de Trabajadores
Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Uruguay
Frente Amplio (Uruguay)
Movimiento de Liberación Nacional (Uruguay)
Movimiento Nacional Por la Patria (Uruguay)
Partido Comunista del Uruguay
Partido Nacional (Uruguay)
Subjects
Uruguay--Politics and government--1904-1973
Uruguay--Politics and government--1973-1985

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Collection of Uruguayan Political Propaganda, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, the University of Texas at Austin.


Box and Folder Inventory

 

Uruguayan unions, political, education, business, and grass roots organizations, 1963-1984, N.d.

box folder
1 1 Accion Gremial, 1971, N.d.
Agrupación 11, 1968
Agrupación de Comunistas de Coronet, 1972
Agrupación Revolucionaria de Montevideo, 1970
Agrupaciones Rojas, 1972
Asamblea Nacional y Popular de la Enseñanza, 1972
Asamblea de Profesores, 1969-1970
2 Asociación de Bancarios del Uruguay – AEBU, 1968-1974, N.d.

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3 Asociación de Estudiantes de Medicina – AEM, 1970
Asociación de Estudiantes de Química, 1968
Asociación de Estudiantes Magisteriales de Montevideo – AEMM, 1973, N.d.
Asociación Empleados de Enseñanza Secundaria – AEDES, 1972
Asociación de Funcionarios del Hospital de Clínicas – AFHC, 1972, N.d.
Asociación de la Prensa Uruguaya, 1973, N.d.
Asociación de Oficiales de Reserva del Uruguay, 1969
Asociación de Profesores de Enseñanza Secundaria del Uruguay, 1968-1969
Asociación de Profesores Normalistas, N.d.
Asociación del Personal de la Enseñanza Privada, 1972
4 Banco Central del Uruguay, 1979
Centro de Estudiantes Crnel. L. Latorre – CEL, N.d.
Centro de Estudiantes de Arquitectura – CEDA, 1970, N.d.
Centro Estudiantes Humanidades – CEH, N.d.
Centro de Estudiantes de Odontología, 1972, N.d.
Centro de Estudios de Ciencias Naturales, 1972
Centro de Estudios Políticos – CEP, 1974
Coalición Renovadora de Estudiantes Independientes – CREI, 1973
Comisión de la Asociación de Docentes de la Facultad de Química, 1971
Comisión Interna Funcionarios Caja 17, N.d.
Comité “Los 8 Héroes de la 20ª”, 1973
5 Comité de Familiares de Presos Políticos, 1971-1972, N.d.
6 Comité de Lucha, 1974
Comité de Movilización, 1973, N.d.
Comité de Movilización de la AEV, N.d.
Comité del Base “26 de Marzo”, 1971
Comunidades Cristianas, 1969
Concentración Nacionalista “Juan Di Sevo”, 1970
Congreso de Trabajadores, N.d.
Congreso Nacional del Movimiento Nacional de Rocha, 1972
Consejo Nacional de Enseñanza Secundaria, 1968-1970
Consejo Nacional Herrerrista, 1983
7 Convención Nacional de Trabajadores – CNT,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1968-1974, N.d.
8 Official documents, 1970-1973, N.d.
Newsletters, 1968-1975
Communications, 1973, N.d.

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CNT in Buenos Aires, N.d.
9 Convención Universitaria de Estudiantes, 1960
Coordinadora Cerrito de la Victoria, 1973, N.d.
Coordinadora de Estudiantes de Secundaria del Uruguay – CESU, 1968-1971, N.d.
Coordinadora de Gremiales de la Enseñanza Pública, 1969-1972, N.d.
Coordinadora de Institutos de la Zona, 1972
Estudiantes del Fernan Pucurull, 1971
Estudiantes del Instituto de Profesores, N.d.
Estudiantes del Instituto Julio Sposito Ex Suarez, 1973
Estudiantes Nacionalistas, 1972
Facultad de Medicina, 1973
Federación ANCAP, 1972
Federación de Docentes Universitarios, N.d.
10 Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Uruguay – FEUU,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1968-1974, N.d.
11 Official documents, N.d.
Newsletters, 1968-1972
Communications, 1968-1972, N.d.
12 Federación de Funcionarios de la Universidad, 1968
Federación Nacional de Profesores, N.d.
Federación Nacional de Profesores de Enseñanza Secundaria del Uruguay, 1970-1971
Federación Uruguaya de Docentes y Administrativos de la Universidad del Trabajo – FUDAUT, 1968-1973, N.d.
Federación Uruguaya de Funcionarios de Entidades Medico Mutuales, 1970
Federación Uruguaya de la Salud – FUS, 1971, N.d.
Fondo de Solidaridad, N.d.
13 Frente Amplio – FA,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1971-1984, N.d.
14 Official documents, 1971, N.d.
Newsletters, "Noticias" 1972-1973
Communications, 1971-1973, N.d.
15 Frente Estudiantil Revolucionario – FER, 1971-1972, N.d.
Frente Izquierda de Liberación, 1971, N.d.
Comité Nacional Femenina del Frente Izquierda de Liberación, 1972
Frente Nacional de le Juventud Herrerista, N.d.
Funcionarios Facultad de Derecho, 1968
16 Gremial Profesores de Montevideo – GPM, 1968-1973, N.d.
17 Grito de Asencio, 1970-1971
Grupos de Acción Nacionalista Oriental – GANO, N.d.
Grupo de Bancarios, 1969
Grupo Espartaco, 1971
Idea y Acción, 1968
Instituto Magisterial de Montevideo, N.d.
Integremial Facultad de Arquitectura, 1973
Izquierda Revolucionaria Batllista, N.d.
box folder
2 1 Juventudes Nacionalistas, 1972
Juventud de la Unión Blanca Democrática (UBD), N.d.
Juventud con Wilson, N.d.
“Los 33,” N.d.
Mesa Zonal Ciudad Vieja, 1968
Movimiento Bancario Nacionalista, 1969
Movimiento Coordinador del Magisterio de Montevideo, N.d.
Movimiento por la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, 1972
Movimiento de Defensa de los Libertades y la Soberanía, 1969, N.d.
Movimiento Estudiantil Nacional – MEN, N.d.
Movimiento de Independientes, Sector Estudiantil, 1971
Movimiento Nacional Demócrata, N.d.
Movimiento Nacional Femenino, 1968
Movimiento Nacional de la Piedras, N.d.
Movimiento Nueva Generación, N.d.
Movimiento Poder Joven, N.d.
Movimiento de Recuperación Nacional – MRN, N.d.
Movimiento Revolucionario 8 de Octubre, 1968
Movimiento de Trabajadores Nacionalistas – MTN, N.d.
2 Movimiento Universitario Nacionalista – MUN, 1972-1973, N.d.
3 Nueva Acción Femenina – NAF, 1968
Obispo y su Consejo del Presbiterio de Montevideo, 1973
Obreros de ANCAP, 1973
Organización Gremial de Funcionarios, Docentes, Administrativos y de Servicio de la Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay – OMTUTU, 1973
Orientales Demócratas, N.d.
Orientales Unidos, 1973
Padres y Profesores del Instituto Larrañaga, 1970
Paraninfo de la Universidad, N.d.
4 Partido Comunista,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1973-1975, N.d.
5 Official documents, 1974
Newsletters, 1968-1980
Communications, 1973-1974
6 Unión de Juventud Comunista – UJC, , 1972-1974, N.d.
7 Partido Demócrata Cristiana, 1973, N.d.
Juventud Demócrata Cristiana, 1968, N.d.
8 Partido Nacional – PN,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1971-1975, N.d.
9 Official documents, 1966-1980, N.d.

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Newsletters, 1973-1974
10 Communications, Correspondence, 1972-1984, N.d.
11 Letters from Wilson Ferreira Aldunate, 1973-1980, N.d.
12 Juventud del Partido Nacional, 1970-1980, N.d.
13 Partido Socialista, 1969-1971, N.d.
14 Patriotas Orientales, 1972
Personal de “Extra,” 1969
Plenario de Organizaciones Populares, 1973
15 Por la Patria, 1972-1984, N.d.

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Comité Femenino “Por la Patria,” 1971, N.d.
Juventud del Movimiento Por la Patria, N.d.
14 Pueblo Nacionalista, N.d.
Pueblo Oriental, 1973
Juventud del Pueblo Oriental, 1975
Resistencia Obrero-Estudiantil – REO, 1969-1971, N.d.
16 Sindicato Médico del Uruguay, 1968-1973, N.d.
box folder
3 1 Sala de Profesores del Instituto Batlle y Ordoñez, 1969
Secretaria Ejecutiva Departamento Educación Católica – SEDEC, 1984
Sindicato de Funcionarios no-Docentes de la Educación Primaria, N.d.
Sindicato de Obreros y Empleados de Manzanares – SOEM, 1971
Sindicato Único Nacional del Construcción y Anexos – SUNCA, 1973
Sociedad Uruguaya Republicana Demócrata, 1971
2 Tupamaros – Movimiento de Liberación Nacional – MLN, 1968-1972, N.d.

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3 Unión de Artistas Plásticos Contemporáneos, 1965
Unión Nacional Reeleccionista – UNR, 1971
Unión Nacionalista, 1984
Universidad de la Rocha, 1972
Uruguayos Demócratas del “Banza”, 1971
Vanguardia, 1971
4 Various Organizations – unknown acronyms
ADEOM, 1968
AEA, 1973, N.d.
AFFV, N.d.
CEIA, N.d.
CEIEC, N.d.
CEIPA, 1971, N.d.
COA, N.d.
COFE, N.d.
ENE, 1973
FAU, N.d.
FONCRA, N.d.
FUNSA, 1972
IPA, N.d.
JUP, 1972
PDC, N.d.
PIT, N.d.
5 Unidentified Organizations,
Flyers and pamphlets, 1968-1983
6 Flyers and pamphlets, N.d.
7 Newsletters, 1968-1980, N.d.
8 Communications, 1968-1975, N.d.
Clippings, 1971-1984, N.d.
9 Other, 1968-1973, N.d.
General government and political parties, 1980, N.d.
10 Elections, 1963-1983, N.d.
International printed materials, 1969-1979, N.d.



 

Uruguay Government, 1970-1982, N.d

box folder
3 11 Official documents, 1970-1982
12 Official documents, N.d.
Newsletter, 1975
Correspondence, communications, 1971-1979, N.d.



 

International Organizations, 1972-1977, N.d

box folder
3 13 Amnesty International, 1972
Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos de la Organización de los Estados Americanos, 1977
Consejo Mundial de la Paz, 1974
International Commission of Jurists, 1974
Senado de la República de Venezuela, N.d.
United States Government, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, 1977
Washington Office on Latin America - WOLA, 1977



 

Oversize Materials, 1968-1984, N.d

box folder
4 1 Asociación de Bancarios del Uruguay – AEBU, N.d.
Centro de Estudios de Ciencias Naturales, 1972
Coordinadora de Gremiales de la Enseñanza Pública, 1969
Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios de Uruguay – FEUU, 1968-1971
Federación Uruguaya de Docentes y Administrativos de la Universidad del Trabajo – FUDAUT, 1973
Frente Amplio – FA, N.d.
2 Nueva Acción Femenina – NAF, 1968
Paraninfo de la Universidad, N.d.
Partido Nacional, 1971, N.d.
Juventud del Partido Nacional, 1970
Partido Socialista, N.d.
Pueblo Nacionalista, N.d.
Por la Patria, 1984
Sindicato Médico del Uruguay, 1968
3 Unidentified Organizations,
Clippings, 1971-1984
Other,
Elections, 1963-1967
International printed materials, 1969-1974, N.d.