The Benson Latin American Collection

George O. Jackson, Jr., Essence of Mexico Collection, 1990-2002



Descriptive Summary

Creator Jackson, George O., Jr.
Title Essence of Mexico Collection
Dates: 1990-2002
Abstract This extensive collection of 35mm color slides documents traditional and indigenous festivals in Mexico.
Accession No. 2002-08
OCLC Record No.
Extent 76,124 color 35mm slides, 16 audiocassette tapes, and 1 CD
Language English
Repository Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch

Born 2 October 1941 in Houston, Texas, photographer George O. Jackson, Jr. has a heritage rich in Mexican culture. He is a descendant of Manuel Maria de Llano, who was Mayor of Monterrey and twice Governor of the state of Nuevo Leon. His great uncle, Rodrigo de Llano, was the publisher of Excelsior, a major newspaper of Mexico City. At the onset of the Mexican Revolution his great grandfather, Ruben Villarreal, a silver miner in northern Mexico, relocated his family to Laredo, Texas, where Jackson spent his youth. Jackson recalls that his fascination with the cultural activity of Mexico was sparked during these early years.

As a young adult, Jackson was a successful restaurant owner, entrepreneur and student at the University of Texas at Austin (1961). In 1970, Jackson became the associate director of a Houston art gallery that featured prominent American artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. It was in 1977 that he made the decision to begin documenting his personal life through photographs. He accompanied friends, botanists, and researchers to the jungles of southern Mexico, making photographic records of the trips. At the same time, Jackson continued to photograph throughout Mexico. In 1984, he became a full-time photographer and created the Parklane Collection of photography made of the Houston skyline from his aerie on the 28th floor of the Parklane condominiums. He became increasingly fascinated by Mexican indigenous folk culture, and in particular, their festival celebrations. Recognizing the importance of documenting vestiges of ancient traditions and beautiful rituals integral to these celebrations, he was inspired to "create a unique historical collection of photography as it related to the time, the final decade of the millennium."

In 1990, The Essence of Mexico Project was born. For the next eleven years, 1990-2001, Jackson photographed the dance, costume, music, ceremony, folk art, ephemera, architecture, and people that make-up these diverse celebrations. This collection of photographs is a visual legacy to the cultural life of more than sixty indigenous cultural groups of Mexico at the turn of the 21st century.


Scope and Contents Note

76,124 color 35mm slides, 16 audiocassette tapes and 1 CD narrative of the collection. These slides document more than 330 festivals held in communities spanning twenty-three states and the Federal District of Mexico, and encompass more than sixty different indigenous tribes. In this collection there are four types of festivals documented by Jackson which can be classified according to their origin and function (even though they may have reached a point of sharing characteristics of other types): first are the ancient ritual agricultural calendar celebrations which translate into several cyclic festivals and Catholic celebrations; second are the patron festivals, whose saint or virgin protects a village, group or labor; third are the festivals related to pilgrimage sanctuaries, a product of religious traditions; last are the family based festivals, appointed to certain rituals of the life cycle: baptisms, communions, weddings, and death. Dances, costumes, masks, musicians, ephemera, folk art, fireworks, flora, fauna, architecture, food, ceremony, ritual, and portraits of the local indigenous people in preparation for and during these festivals comprise the bulk of the images in this collection. When possible, Jackson has photographed the festivals from their beginning through to their conclusion. However, due to the privacy restrictions placed on Jackson by certain tribes and/or because Jackson may have unexpectedly happened upon a festival already in progress, a handful of festivals provide only a glimpse of the activity.

The photographer’s audio narrative that accompanies this collection gives a full and detailed description of the images he has captured. The majority of images (67,325 slides) document the festivals and the activities surrounding them. In addition, there is a series of non-festival images (8,800) that include landscapes, architecture, flora and fauna, ephemera, and people Jackson encountered on his way to and from specific festival locations. This series is labeled Environs/Culturas. Most of the images in this collection are originals. Selected original slides have been removed to the San Antonio Musuem of Art's Nelson A. Rockefeller Center for Latin American Art. Duplicates of these selected originals have been made and placed in their proper order within this collection.


 

Arrangement

The festivals are arranged according to when they occur during the calendar year, beginning in January and ending in December. Within each festival, the locations are arranged alphabetically by state and then city. In addition, the tribe(s) associated with each location appear in brackets, ex. [Cruzob Maya]. The slides have been given a festival and location code and numbered sequentially. This information appears in brackets at the end of each location entry, ex. [CV-STE.001 to 184]. The Environs/Culturas series occurs at the end of the collection. These slides are organized alphabetically by state and then city. No codes have yet been assigned to these slides. The audiocassette narratives are arranged according to the finding aid, and follow sequentially from festival to festival beginning in January and ending in December.

Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Unrestricted.

Use Restrictions

Standard copyright restrictions apply. Permission of Mr. Jackson is required for any copying or publication of The Essence of Mexico Project images.


Index Terms

The Essence of Mexico project collection will be classified under the following Subject Headings in the University of Texas library catalog:
Costume--Mexico--Photographs
Festivals--Mexico--Photographs
Folk dancing--Mexico--Photographs
Indians of Mexico--Photographs
Indians of Mexico--Religion and Mythology--Photographs
Mexico--Photographs
Mexico--Social life and customs--Photographs
Document Types
Photographs

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Cite as: George O. Jackson, Jr., Essence of Mexico Collection, Benson Latin American Collection, the University of Texas at Austin Libraries.


Box and Folder Inventory

 

Cambio de Varas, December 31 - January 8

A traditional indigenous ceremony celebrating the changing of the village authorities. Each year the outgoing leader symbolically passes the power of authority to the incoming leader, usually via a ceremonial object such as a staff that is imbued with the power required to lead. In the Tzeltal Maya culture the Baston, or staff, is passed, and wild tobacco called binkilal is used as part of a ritual to protect the village in the year ahead. In the Cora culture an Entrega de los Bancos, an exchanging of chairs occurs. Often during the ceremony there is a discussion of the accomplishments of the past year and a voice given to what needs to be accomplished in the future. For the Cora, this is a social event that includes eating, drinking, ritualistic games , speech making, music and dancing. These slides document ceremonies, dances, costumes, churches, ephemera, offerings, and other traditions associated with this celebration.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #1 side B.
box folder
1 1 Tenejapa, Chiapas, [Tzeltal Maya] 2000
[CV-TEN.001 to 213]
2 Tenejapa, Chiapas, [Tzeltal Maya] 2000
[CV-TEN.214 to 390]
1 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.001 to 273]
box folder
2 2 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.274 to 383]
3 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.384 to 509]
4 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.510 to 704]
5 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.705 to 716]
6 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[CV-STE.717 to 875]



 

Fiesta de Los Reyes Magos, January 6

A religious celebration honoring The Three Kings (or Wise Men or Magi), who traveled from the East following a bright star to the stable in Bethlehem where Jesus was born. The Three Kings brought rich gifts to the baby Jesus and the children of Mexico believe the trio also brings them gifts on this day. In this celebration the Kings are typically represented by three young boys wearing colorful robes and crowns. There is a procession to the church where the Kings receive homage. In San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, the celebration includes ephemera in the form of a variety of colorful papier-mâché animals. In Santos Reyes Nopala, Oaxaca, the Chatiño celebration includes a display of fireworks. These slides document processions, pageantry, costumes, churches, ephemera, folk art, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #1 side B.
box folder
3 1 San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, [Mestizo] 2000
[RM-SCC.01 to 144]
1 Santos Reyes Nopala, Oaxaca (Includes Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca), [Chatiño] 1996
[RM-SRE.001 to 155]



 

Danza de Abraham y Isaac, January 6-7

A religious celebration of the Epiphany, marked with a dance. Characters dressed as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob perform a traditional dance with the devil known as Kakaxkal, who looks like a horse. There is a procession of the baby Jesus, and an offering of corn. In Dzitnup, Yucatán, Cortez's men appeared on horseback, and the teponaxtle drum is used for music making. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, processions, offerings, ephemera, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2 side A.
box folder
3 1 Tihosuco, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 2001
[DA-TIH. 01 to 70]
1 Dzitnup, Yucatán, [Cruzob Maya] 2000
[DA-DZI.01 to 81]



 

El Señor de Esquipulas, (El Christo Negro) January 15

A religious celebration dedicated to the black Christ of Esquipulas. There is a procession to the church to make offerings and give thanks to the Christ. This Chol Maya festival includes Chol elders dancing with Quetzal feathers, indicating the presence of the indigenous spirit at the celebration. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, processions, churches, offerings, ephemera, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2, side A.
box folder
3 1 Oxchuc, Chiapas, (Ofrenda y Santa), [Chol Maya] 2000
[ES-OXC.01 to 04]
1 Tila, Chiapas, [Chol Maya] 2000
[ES-TIL.001 to 191]



 

Fiesta de San Sebastian, January 20

A celebration of the patron Saint Sebastian, the martyr. This is a regionally famous festival. Legend has it that on this day, Doña María, a woman grateful for the cure of her young son, brought cattle and cereal to feed the starving people of Chiapa de Corzo. She ordered that her son be brought out on a stretcher, naked like a saint, so that the town would no longer fall on hard times. Legend has it that this act provided for a good harvest, and each year the Chiapenca honor the saint. The festival is marked by the arrival of the parachicos wearing their noted ixtle caps and beautiful masks with eyes made of painted glass. They wear silk shawls with embroidered beads, saltillo serapes and carry tin rattles. The festival also incorporates the use of tall papier-mâché figures known as marmotas, and the silly acting chuntas, (men dressed as women). These slides document the procession, dance, church, ephemera, offerings, effigies, mayordomia, merry making, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2, side A.
box folder
4 1 Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, [Chiapeneca] 2000
[SB.001 to 191]



 

Fiesta de La Virgen de la Candelaria, February 2

A religous and agriculture festival known as Candlemas. On this day candles and seeds for planting are blessed in churches. It is a rite of purification. In Tlacotlpan, Veracuz, a river culture, the procession of the Virgin takes place on the water using a barge and boats. During the celebration this culture also holds a running of the bulls known as a pamplonada, and stages cockfights. These slides document processions, effigies, churches, music, dance, ephemeral decorations, traditional and ritual food preparation and consumption, drinking, merry making, rodeos, carnival rides, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2 side A.
box folder
4 1 San Fernando, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya/Mestizo] 2001
[CN-SFE.001 to 162]
box folder
5 1 San Pedro Xicoras, Durango, [Mexicanero] 1999
[CN-SPX.001 to 246]
2 San Pedro Xicoras, Durango, [Mexicanero] 1999
[CN-SPX.247 to 457]
3 San Pedro Xicoras, Durango, [Mexicanero] 1999
[CN-SPX.458 to 626]
box folder
6 1 Huehuetla, Hidalgo, [Nahua/Tepehua] 1997
[CN-HUH.001 to 116]
1 Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, [Mestizo] 1993
[CN-TLA.001 to 241]



 

Peregrinacion a Wirikuta, February 2

A peyote hunt with blessings and rites for the god of the desert springs. This is a ritual event with ceremony performed for the collecting of peyote, a small hallucinogenic cactus. Peyote is revered to have great curative powers bringing luck, long life, protection, and connects its users to their spirit world. The ritual begins with blessings and homage to the god of the springs with votive offerings. There is fire, which represents their grandfather, Tatewari, and an evening of storytelling around the fire. Finally, there is sleep. At sunrise the fire is stoked and a final ritual of circling the fire to say goodbye to the Tatewari is performed, after which the hunting of peyote begins. Later the harvested peyote is processed and sampled. These slides document the traditions and rituals associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2 side A.
box folder
7 1 Estacion Catorce, San Luis Potosi, [Huichol] 1999
[WI.001 to 240]
2 Estacion Catorce, San Luis Potosi, [Huichol] 1999
[WI.241 to 488]



 

Inicio de la Siembra, February 7

A Catholic and pre-Columbian agricultural celebration to appreciate all of the gods associated with the planting season. It is celebrated each year at the beginning of planting season. In Ahuacatlán, Puebla, the festivities begin with a Catholic mass in the local church that is beautifully adorned with floral ephemera. There are a variety of dances that accompany this festival, such as the Voladores, Negritos, Chareo, Hormeca, Toreros, and Espanoles. Cockfights and a fireworks display are also a part of this celebration. These slides document the musicians, dance (particularly the Voladores), costumes, masks, church, ephemeral decorations, effigies, cockfights, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #2 side A.
box folder
8 1 Ahuacatlán, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1997
[IS.001 to 088]
2 Ahuacatlán, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1997
[IS.089 to 310]
3 Ahuacatlán, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1997
[IS.311 to 560]
4 Ahuacatlán, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1997
[IS.561 to 651]



 

Carnaval, February - March

A non-religious celebration that begins Lent, one of the most important seasons of the Catholic church. The date for Carnaval is moveable, it can occur in the last half of February or in early March. The celebrations surrounding Carnaval in Mexico are similar to those of other countries. They include hilarious and unrestrained merry-making and dancing in the streets. In the more remote areas of the Huasteca, traditional body painting is practiced, using naturally occurring pigments found in the bark of the colorin or coral tree. Also, in many of these communities, Carnaval involves specific rituals, such as painting, bathing, stick dances, and the wearing of masks. These slides document musicians, dances, body painting, elaborate costumes, masks, processions, drinking, merry-making, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #2 side B, #3 side A, and #3 side B.
box folder
9 1 Chenalho, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1988
[CR-CHO.01 to 85]
1 Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, [Zoque/Chiapaneco] 2001
[CR-OCZ.001 to 146]
2 Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, [Aoque/Chiapaneco] 2001
[CR-OCZ.147 to 278]
1 San Fernando, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya] 2001
[CR-SFE.01 to 72]
box folder
10 1 Chalingo, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[MC-CHG.01 to 40]
1 Coatzacoatl, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-COT.01 to 38]
1 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[CR-HUA.0001 to 0066]
1 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-HUA.0067 to 0307]
2 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-HUA.0308 to 0422]
3 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-HUA.0423 to 0626]
box folder
11 1 Huautla, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[CR-HUA.0627 to 0779]
2 Huautla, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[CR-HUA.0780 to 1015]
3 Huautla, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[CR-HUA.1016 to 1200]
4 Huautla, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[CR-HUA.1201 to 1311]
1 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[CR-HUA.1312 to 1392]
box folder
12 1 Huitzotlaco, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[CR-HUO.001 to 121]
1 Jaltocan, Hidalgo, (Domingo de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[CR-JAL.001 to 100]
1 Jaltocan, Hidalgo, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-JAL.101 to 105]
1 Pahuatitla, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[MC-PAH.01 to 38]
1 Pahuatitla, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[MC-PAH.39 to 43]
1 Tamoyon I, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[MC-TAI.01 to 89]
1 Tamoyon I, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[MC-TAI.090 to 200]
2 Tamoyon I, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[MC-TAI.201 to 356]
box folder
13 1 Tamoyon I, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[MC-TAI.357 to 577]
1 Tamoyon II, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[MC-TII.001 to 257]
1 Tamoyon II, Hidalgo, (Miercoles de Ceniza), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1994
[MC-TII.258 to 286]
1 Tzacuala, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[CR-TZA.001 to 118]
1 Tzacuala, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[CR-TZA.119 to 148]
box folder
14 1 Xochiatipan, Hidalgo, (Domingo de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1993
[CR-XOT.01 to 64]
1 Yahualica, Hidalgo, (Martes de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1996
[CR-YAH.01 to 15]
1 San Juan Ixcaquixtla, Puebla, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Chocho] 1992
[CR-SJI.01 to 61]
1 Tepexi, Puebla, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Huitziltepec] 1992
[CR-TXR.01 to 36]
1 Tenosique de Pino Suarez, Tabasco, [Mayo/Mestizo] 2000
[CR-TEQ.001 to 157]
2 Tenosique de Pino Suarez, Tabasco, [Mayo/Mestizo] 2000
[CR-TEQ.158 to 364]
box folder
15 1 Santa Ana Chiautempan, Tlaxcala, (Domingo de Carnaval), [Tlaxcalteco] 1991
[CR-SAC.001 to 129]
1 Santa Ana Chiautempan, Tlaxcala, [Tlaxcalteco] 1992
[CR-SAC.130 to 242]
1 Santa Ana Chiautempan, Tlaxcala, [Tlaxcalteco] 1994
[CR-SAC.243 to 277]
1 Misc. towns, Tlaxcala, [Tlaxcalteco/Mestizo] 1992
[CR-MIS.001 to 249]
box folder
16 1 Alamos, Veracruz, (Pyrotecnico)[Nahua de la Huasteca] 1997
[MC-ALS.01 to 24]
1 Benito Juarez, Veracruz, (Pyrotecnico)[Nahua de la Huasteca] 1997
[MC-BJU.01 to 20]
1 Castillo de Teayo, Veracruz, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Totonaco] 1994
[CR-CTE.01 to 64]
1 Colotlan, Veracruz, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1997
[CR-COL.001 to 123]
1 Ixcatepec, Veracruz, (Jueves de Carnaval), [Huasteco/Mestizo] 1996
[CR-IXC.001 to 223]
box folder
17 1 Pisa Flores, Veracruz, [Tepehua Indians] 1997
[CR-PFL.001 to 147]
2 Pisa Flores, Veracruz, [Tepehua Indians] 1997
[CR-PFL.148 to 294]
3 Pisa Flores, Veracruz, [Tepehua Indians] 1997
[CR-PFL.295 to 446]
1 Municipio de Chontla, San Francisco y San Juan, Veracruz, (Domingo de Carnaval), [Huasteco Veracruzano] 1996
[CR-SFJ.01 to 83]
1 Tlatlapango, Veracruz, (Miercoles de Ceniza - Pyrotecnico)[Nahua de la Huasteca] 1997
[MC-TLT.01 to 12]



 

Cuaresma (Lent), February - March

A religious celebration rooted in the Catholic church that lasts for forty days. It is based on the idea of abstinence. Lent was introduced into Mexico by the Spaniards. “On Ash Wednesday lovers take leave of love until Saturday of Glory when they love again.” This verse sung by the primitive Otomi expresses the Catholic command to abstain. In Mexico, Lent is not as strict as it is in some other Catholic countries. Various regions throughout Mexico hold individual festivals, some are celebratory others are strictly religious. Many make pilgrimages to the holy shrine in Chalma, and the Ahuethuete tree, where miracles are said to have happened. These slides document processions, dances, costumes, churches, ephemera, fairs, bull baitings, cockfights, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #3 side B and #4 side A.
box folder
18 1 Bejucal de Ocampo, Chiapas, [Mam/Mocho/Mestizo] 2000
[CU-BEO.01 to 57]
1 Jaltenango, Chiapas, [Jacalteco] 2000
[CU-JAO.01 to 63]
1 Venustiano Carranza, Chiapas, (Fourth Sunday), [Zoque Maya] 2000
[CU-VCA.001 to 137]
1 Chalma, Edo. de México, (First Friday), [Nahua/Mestizo] 1989
[CU-CAA.001 to 044]
1 Chalma, Edo. de México, (First Friday), [Nahua/Mestizo] 1991
[CU-CAA.045 to 128]
1 Chalma, Edo. de México, (First Friday), [Nahua/Mestizo] 1992
[CU-CAA.129 to 301]
box folder
19 1 Igualapa, Guerrero, (Third Friday), [Tlapaneco, Amuzgo, Mixteco, Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[CU-IGU.001 to 251]
1 Yautepec, Morelos, (First Friday), [Nahua/Mestizo] 1989
[CU-YAU.01 to 22]
1 San Pedro Jicayán, Oaxaca, [Mixteco de la Costa] 1991
[CU-SPJ.01 to 08]
1 Chiconcuatla, Puebla, (First Friday), [Nahua/Totonac] 1994
[CU-CCC.001 to 231]
box folder
20 2 Chiconcuatla, Puebla, (First Friday), [Nahua/Totonac] 1994
[CU-CCC.232 to 552]
1 Santiago Xalizintla, Puebla, (Ceremonia de Regreso de Peregrinos a Chalma), [Nahua/Poblano] 1992
[CU-SAX.001 to 140]
1 Totoltepec de Guerrero, Puebla, (Second Friday), [Chocho] 1992
[CU-TOT.001 to 166]
2 Totoltepec de Guerrero, Puebla, (Second Friday), [Chocho] 1992
[CU-TOT.167 to 273]



 

National Fireworks Festival, March 8

A famous national fireworks competition. The Spanish brought fireworks from their Asian colonies to Mexico. Today they are part of a great many festivals throughout the country. The town of Tultepec is renouned for its elaborate fireworks and fireworks makers, or pirotecnicos. During this festival, each neighborhood tries to outdo the other by building the best and biggest toritos and castillos. The fireworks are an ingenious art form, and there is a competition between master pirotecnicos to build the most spectacular Castillo. At nightfall the fireworks are ignited and burn late into the night. These slides document the traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #4 side A.
box folder
21 1 Tultepec, Edo. de México (Gran Corrida de Toros), [Mestizo] 2001
[FW.001 to 073]
2 Tultepec, Edo. de México (Pyrotecnicas/Castillos), [Mestizo] 2001
[FW.074 to 267]
3 Tultepec, Edo. de México (Pyrotecnicas/Castillos), [Mestizo] 2001
[FW.268 to 443]
4 Tultepec, Edo. de México (Pyrotecnicas/Castillos), [Mestizo] 2001
[FW.444 to 535]



 

Niño Fidencio, March 14-21

A celebration of a folk saint and healer from the small town of Espinazo. Niño Fidencio (1898-1938) had healing powers so powerful that a railroad was built to enable his followers to reach the town and be healed. Noted for his adolescent appearance, slanted eyes, and falsetto speaking voice, he cured with ritual, medicines and surgery. Every March his followers, the Fidencistas, gather to celebrate his birth. The Materías, those who claim to have inherited his healing powers, lead their followers to his shrine each year. Pilgrims roll, crawl and drag themselves to the site where he is buried,(see also the entry for the Niño Fidencio celebration of October 14-21). These slides document pilgims, processions, penance, ephemera, offerings, shrine, and other traditions associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #4 sides A and B.
box folder
21 1 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 2001
[NF.01 to 56]



 

Semana Santa, March - April

A weeklong religious celebration called Holy Week that is based in the Catholic tradition. Palm Sunday brings the blessing of palm branches in churches throughout Mexico. On Maundy Thursday and Good Friday there are passion plays that tell the story of Christ’s crucifixion. Saturday brings the destruction of Judas and the Mass of Glory. Sunday is for church ceremonies and celebrations honoring Christ’s rising from the tomb. Holy Week celebrations vary widely from village to town. Taxco de Alarcón carries the penitent tradition from Sevilla, Spain. Penitentes flagellate themselves, wear horsehair cummerbunds, and carry large, heavy bundles of thorns as varying forms of penance throughout the celebration. These slides document processions, costumes, pageantry of the Passion Play, offerings, elaborate ephemera, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #4 side B, #5 side A and B, and #6 side A.
box folder
22 1 Munerachi, Chihuahua, [Tarahumara] 1997
[SS-MUN.001 to 208]
2 Munerachi, Chihuahua, [Tarahumara] 1997
[SS-MUN.209 to 429]
1 Norogachic, Chihuahua, [Tarahumara] 1985
[SS-NOR.01 to 65]
box folder
23 1 Ayutla de los Libres, Guerrero, (Domingo de Ramos), [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1991
[SS-ALI.01 to 21]
1 Iguala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1992
[SS-IGA.01 to 04]
1 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Culto de Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1989
[SS-TAX.001 to 081]
1 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.082 to 274]
2 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.275 to 424]
box folder
24 3 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.425 to 663]
4 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.664 to 839]
5 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.840 to 1028]
6 Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, (Penitentes), [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-TAX.1029 to 1174]
box folder
25 1 Macuxtepetla, Hidalgo, (Bendición de las Aguas), [Huasteca] 1994
[SS-MAX.01 to 72]
1 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Thursday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.001 to 194]
2 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Thursday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.195 to 367]
box folder
26 3 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Thursday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.368 to 559]
4 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Friday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.560 to 740]
5 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Friday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.741 to 876]
6 Ixtapalapa, México DF, (Saturday), [Mestizo] 2000
[SS-IXT.877 to 979]
box folder
27 1 Coatlán del Rio, Morelos, [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-COR.01 to 86]
1 Yecapixtla, Morelos, [Mestizo] 1992
[SS-YEC.01 to 04]
1 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Wednesday PM),[Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0001 to 0036]
2 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Thursday AM), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0037 to 0288]
3 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Thursday PM), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0289 to 0380]
4 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Thursday inside church), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0381 to 0442]
box folder
28 5 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Good Friday), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0443 to 0574]
6 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Good Friday inside church), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0575 to 0731]
7 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Good Friday afternoon), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0732 to 0875]
8 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Stations of the Cross), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0876 to 0939]
box folder
29 9 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Borrados y Palos), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.0940 to 1194]
10 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Judas), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.1195 to 1452]
11 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Judas y Cuelga de los Centuriones), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.1453 to 1518]
12 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.1519 to 1637]
13 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Funeral for the dead "Borrado"), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.1638 to 1679]
14 Santa Teresa, Nayarit, (Funeral for the dead "Borrado"), [Cora] 1999
[SS-STE.1680 to 1684]
box folder
30 1 Coatzospan, Oaxaca, (Sabado de Gloria), [Mixteco] 1998
[SS-COA.01 to 30]
1 Guerrero, Oaxaca, (Ermitas por la Costa Chica), [Mixteco/Mestizo] 1990
[SS-GUE.01 to 20]
1 Nueva Patria, Oaxaca, (Jueves Santo), [Mazateco/Mestizo] 1998
[SS-NPA.01 to 35]
1 Pinotepa de Don Luis, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-PDL.001 to 217]
2 Pinotepa de Don Luis, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-PDL.218 to 450]
box folder
31 3 Pinotepa de Don Luis, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-PDL.451 to 670]
4 Pinotepa de Don Luis, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-PDL.671 to 909]
1 Putla de Guerrero, Oaxaca, (Miercoles Santo), [Trique/Mestizo] 1991
[SS-PUT.01 to 37]
1 San Dionisio, Oaxaca, (Pedimiento de lluvia al Mar Pacifico), [Huave] 1995
[SS-SDI.01 to 40]
box folder
32 1 San Juan Guichicovi, Municipio Matías Romero, Oaxaca, (Fiesta de las Velas, Domingo de Resureccion), [Mixe del Ismo] 1990
[SS-MAR.01 to 85]
1 San Lucas Ojitlán, Oaxaca, [Chinanteco] 1998
[SS-SLO.01 to 19]
1 San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, [Huave] 1990
[SS-SMM.001 to 150]
2 San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, (Casamiento Huave), [Huave] 1990
[SS-SMM.151 to 189]
1 San Pedro Amuzgos, Oaxaca, (Jueves Santo), [Amuzgo Indians] 1991
[SS-SPZ.01 to 48]
1 San Pedro Ixcatlán, Oaxaca, [Mazateco/Mestizo] 1998
[SS-SPI.001 to 241]
box folder
33 1 Santa María Cacahuatepec, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-SMC.01 to 10]
1 Santa María Zacatepec, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1991
[SS-SMZ.01 to 06]
1 El Doctor, Querétaro, [Otomi] 1993
[SS-ELD.001 to 234]
1 El Doctor, Querétaro, [Otomi] 1993
[SS-ELD.235 to 471]
1 San Joaquin, Querétaro, (Viernes Santo), [Mestizo] 1993
[SS-SJO.01 to 29]
box folder
34 1 Ahuacatlán, SLP, (Viernes Santo), [Pame] 1994
[SS-AHN.001 to 161]
1 Huehuetlán, SLP, (Viernes Santo), [Huastec/Mestizo] 1994
[SS-HUN.01 to 18]
1 La Corrala, SLP, [Nahua/Huasteca] 1994
[SS-LCA.01 to 05]
1 Tanlajas, SLP, (Diablos), [Huasteca/Potosina] 1994
[SS-TAS.001 to 179]
1 Xilitla, SLP, (Jueves Santo), [Mestizo/Pame] 1994
[SS-XIL.01 to 15]
1 Barrio Country Club, Barrio La Matanza, Hermosillo, Sonora, (Domingo de Ramos), [Yaqui] 1999
[SS-HER.001 to 111 (Barrio Country Club slide #s are 76 thru 111)]
1 Oatitlán, Veracruz, (Pedimiento), [Mestizo] 1998
[SS-OTA.01 to 38]



 

Primer Encuentro de la Pluralidad, April (mid)

A cultural event. An invitation was issued by the Department of Popular Culture to all indigenous cultures in the hemishpere to meet in Mexico City and perform their traditional dances. The event occurred over a weekend. These slides document the traditions associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
35 1 Ciudad de México, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1992
[EP.01 to 39]



 

Fiesta de San Marcos, April 24-25

A celebration of the patron Saint Mark. The Tlapanec Indians celebrate the Fiesta de Akunyia, a water god, in conjunction with Saint Mark. This festival includes divination, animal sacrifice, and incantations. These slides document processions, dances, musicians, offerings, churches, ephemera, fireworks displays, bull riding, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
35 1 Ocotepec, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya] 1990
[SM-OCO.001 to 170]
2 Ocotepec, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya] 1990
[SM-OCO.171 to 261]
1 Ocotepec, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya] 2000
[SM-OCO.262 to 346]
2 Ocotepec, Chiapas, [Zoque Maya] 2000
[SM-OCO.347 to 497]
box folder
36 1 Cerro de Yelotepec y Huitzapula, Zapotitlán Tablas, Guerrero, (Fiesta de Akunyia), [Tlapanec Indians] 1994
[SM-YEL.001 to 193]
2 Cerro de Yelotepec y Huitzapula, Zapotitlán Tablas, Guerrero, (Fiesta de Akunyia), [Tlapanec Indians] 1994
[SM-YEL.194 to 354]
box folder
37 1 Naupan, Puebla, [Nahua] 1996
[SM-NAU.001 to 150]
2 Naupan, Puebla, [Nahua] 1996
[SM-NAU.151 to 329]
3 Naupan, Puebla, [Nahua] 1996
[SM-NAU.330 to 451]



 

Fiesta de San Pedro Martir, April 28-29

A celebration of the patron Saint Peter of Verona. He was martyred for his belief in Christianity. It is claimed that as he lay dying from a wound through his skull from a machete chop he wrote the name of Christ in blood on the ground. In Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas this celebration takes on the strange custom of stringing ducks up by their feet above the cobblestone streets. Men on horseback ride as fast as they can down the streets trying to pull the ducks heads off. Women adorn the men’s horses with paper ribbons. A procession of decorated horses is welcomed by the community. Firecrackers are set off and candy is thrown to the crowd. The church altar is adorned with palm blossoms. These slides document the traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
38 1 Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, [Mam/Mestizo] 2000
[PM.001 to 238]
2 Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, [Mam/Mestizo] 2000
[PM.239 to 435]



 

Encuentro de Bandas Indígenas, April 30

A band competition organized by the director of the Department of Popular Culture. It is held in a dangerous area known for bandidos, and where armed guards ride the Pepsi trucks. These slides document the music, dance, food, beautiful Amuzgo clothing, and other activities associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
39 1 Xochistlahuaca, Guerrero, [Amuzgo Indians] 1994
[BI.001 to 211]
2 Xochistlahuaca, Guerrero, [Amuzgo Indians] 1994
[BI.212 to 461]
3 Xochistlahuaca, Guerrero, [Amuzgo Indians] 1994
[BI.462 to 629]



 

Encuentro Estatal Indígenas, May 1

A political protest march held by disgruntled state employees. The event included traditional Christians and Moors dances, costumes, headdresses made from lambs wool, and masks with noses shaped like Pinocchio. These slides document the activities associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
39 1 Chilpancingo de los Bravos, Guerrero, [Nahua] 1994
[EI.01 to 43]



 

Fiesta de San José Obrero, May 1

A celebration of the patron Saint Joseph, the worker. He is the symbol of the prudence, dignity, rights, and duties associated with work and the worker. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, ephemera, church, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #6 side A.
box folder
40 1 Chilapa, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[JO.001 to 119]
1 Chilapa, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[JO.120 to 241]



 

Fiestas de la Santa Cruz, May 1-5

A celebration of the Holy Cross during which offerings of pain are propitiated. Mountain, roadside and village crosses are adorned with flowers and various offerings of fruit, bread, poultry, and more. Although this celebration is based in Christianity, the tradition of leaving offerings in return for miracles or blessings from the god(s) has its roots in pre-hispanic times. In Guerrero, this festival is closely tied to Tlaloc, the rain god. An important part of the festival in Acatlán centers around the Ahuehuete tree, a sacred tree because anywhere this tree grows water will be found. The Nahua Guerrerense honor the tree and its spring with a procession and a variety of offerings. Here, the jaguar known as the Tecuane appears. Richly detailed costumes and masks enhance the drama of the Tecuane fights, a form of propitiation. Also, an ancient Aztec dance honoring Tlaloc performed by tight-rope walkers, known as the Maromeros, is important to the welfare of the village as a whole. Walking the rope's straight path holds promise of a successful growing season. Falling off the rope, into the abyss, is a bad omen for crops. Both the Tlacololeros, who dance with popping whips in a propitation to the rain god, and the Huiquixtlis dancers, who represent the wind and juggle a rainstick, are important part of the celebration in this region. In Ahuacuotzingo, Los Costeños, black faced men with machetes, participate in another ritual dance that includes the propitiation of rain to the rain god. They attempt to capture and kill an alligator as its tail whips about in a highly theatrical and dangerous manner. In Tihosuco, Quintana Roo, the Cruzob Maya, are called the Cult of the Talking Cross. Processions with beautifully decorated banners adorn this celebration. The slides document ritual fighting, sacrifice of turkeys, dances, musicians, food, processions, costumes, masks, ephemeral offerings, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #6 side B, and #7 side A.
box folder
40 1 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1990
[SC-ACN.0001 to 0051]
2 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1990
[SC-ACN.0052 to 0166]
3 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1990
[SC-ACN.0167 to 0248]
1 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ACN.0249 to 0449]
box folder
41 2 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ACN.0450 to 0628]
3 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ACN.0629 to0750]
4 Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ACN.0751 to 0970]
1 Acatlán, Guerrero, (Cerro Azul), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ACN.0971 to 1077]
box folder
42 2 Acatlán, Guerrero, (Cerro Azul), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ACN.1078 to 1239]
3 Acatlán, Guerrero, (El Ahuehuete), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ACN.1240 to 1401]
4 Acatlán, Guerrero, (El Ahuehuete), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ACN.1402 to 1551]
5 Acatlán, Guerrero, (El Ahuehuete), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ACN.1552 to 1705]
box folder
43 1 Aguazarca, Guerrero, (Peticion de Lluvia), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-AZA.001 to 181]
1 Ahuacuotzingo, Guerrero, (Peticion de Lluvia), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-AHO.001 to 072]
2 Ahuacuotzingo, Guerrero, (Peticion de Lluvias-Danzas de Los Costeños), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-AHO.073 to 235]
1 La Esperanza, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-ESP.001 to 100]
2 La Esperanza, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-ESP.101 to 239]
1 La Esperanza, Guerrero, (Peticion de Lluvia), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ESP.240 to 246]
box folder
44 1 Santa Catarina, Guerrero, (Peticion de Lluvia), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-SCT.001 to 165]
1 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1990
[SC-ZIT.0001 to 0182]
1 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ZIT.0183 to 0366]
2 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1991
[SC-ZIT.0367 to 0562]
box folder
45 1 Zitlala, Guerrero, (Recibiendo las Cruces en el Rio), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SC-ZIT.563 to 0767]
2 Zitlala, Guerrero, (Recibiendo las Cruces en el Rio), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SC-ZIT. 0768 to 0923]
1 Zitlala, Guerrero, (Cerro de Cruzco), [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SC-ZIT.0924 to 1179]
box folder
46 1 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-ZIT.1180 to 1287]
2 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[SC-ZIT.1288 to 1472]
1 Zitlala, Guerrero, (Recibiendo las Cruces en el Rio), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ZIT.1473 to 1548]
2 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SC-ZIT.1549 to 1731]
box folder
47 1 Cheran, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[SC-CHN.01]
1 Tanaco, Michoacán, [Purepecha/Tarasco] 1997
[SC-TAN.01 to 43]
1 Tihosuco, Quintana Roo; Municipio de Felipe Carrillo Puerto-formerly Chan Santa Cruz, [Cruzob Maya] 2000
[SC-TIH.001 to 142]
2 Tihosuco, Quintana Roo; Municipio de Felipe Carrillo Puerto-formerly Chan Santa Cruz, [Cruzob Maya] 2000
[SC-TIH.143 to 260]



 

Fiesta de la Aparicion de San Miguel Arcangel, May 8-10

A celebration of the patron Saint Michael the Archangel, one of the principal angels. His name was the war-cry of the good angels in the battle fought in heaven against the enemy and his followers. In Coaxtlahuacan, Guerrero, this festival is held in the crater of an extinct volcano. The Tlacololeros dance in propitiation to the rain god, and the Danza de los Pescaditos measures devotion through the propitiation of pain. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, food, processions, ephemeral altar decorations, churches, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #7 side A and B.
box folder
47 1 Coaxtlahuacan, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[AM-COX.001 to 337]
box folder
48 1 Coaxtlahuacan, Guerrero, (Fiesta de la Cuevita), [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[AM-COX.338 to 577]
1 Ecatzingo de Hidalgo, Edo. de México, (Faldas del Popocatepetl), [Nahua] 1997
[AM-EHI.001 to 249]



 

Fiesta de San Isidro Labrador, May 14-15

A celebration of the patron Saint Isadore in conjunction with the agricultural growing cycle. Saint Isidore is the patron of farmers and rural communities. He was known for his love of the poor, and there are accounts of Isidore miraculously supplying them with food. In addition, he is known for his great concern for the proper treatment of animals. This is a sowing festival in which seeds for planting and animals are blessed. In Comalcalco, Tabasco, this festival is called Flor de Cacao in honor of the Cacao beans used to make chocolate and local clothing. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, ephemeral decorations, offerings, churches, cockfighting, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
49 1 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.001 to 080]
2 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.081 to 133]
3 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.134 to 211]
4 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.212 to 225]
5 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.226 to 501]
6 Metepec, Edo. de México, [Mazahua/Mestizo] 1997
[SI-MET.502 to 639]
box folder
50 1 San Luis Acatlán, Guerrero, [Nahua/Amusgo] 1994
[SI-SLA.001 to 218]
1 Comalcalco, Tabasco, (Flor de Cacao Festival), [Chontal] 2000
[SI-COM.001 to 131]
1 Jalpa de Mendez, Tabasco, [Chontal] 2000
[SI-JME.01 to 54]



 

Fiesta de la Santisima Trinidad, May 21

A celebration of the blessed Trinity. During this celebration there is a ritual exchange of Mayordomos. A typical Mayo dance called La Pascola is performed. These slides document the musicians, dance, procession, carnival rides, ephemeral decorations, banners, offerings, church, food, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
50 1 El Jupare, Sonora, [Mayo] 1999
[ST.001 to 189]
box folder
51 2 El Jupare, Sonora, [Mayo] 1999
[ST.190 to 369]
3 El Jupare, Sonora, [Mayo] 1999
[ST.370 to 517]



 

Domingo de Pentecostes, May 21

A religious celebration centered on Pentecostal Sunday. In Coatepec, the festivities focus around the church and Holy Communion is given. There is a costumed Christian and Moor dance with beautifully detailed capes performed in front of the church. These slides document the traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
51 1 Coatepec, Edo. de México, [Matlatzinca/Mestizo] 1997
[DP.001 to 173]



 

Fiesta del Raton, June 2

A traditional agricultural ritual dance centered around the rat. In times past, the Tlapeneco captured rats and tamed them, keeping them well fed. At festival time the rats were fed dough mixed with mezcal and dumped in stupor in a pile in the center of the village square. Celebrants danced around the pile of rats, until they staggered away to freedom. The hope was that the rats would return to the wild spreading stories of being well treated by the villagers, and therefore sparing the village crops from being eaten or destroyed. In recent years the festival has changed and the captive rats are danced to death. These slides document the musicians, dance, ephemera, effigies, altars, a barter only market, the decorating and dressing of the rats, and other traditions associated with this ritual.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
52 1 Acatepec, Guerrero, [Tlapaneco] 2001
[DR.001 to 155]
2 Acatepec, Guerrero, [Tlapanceo] 2001
[DR.156 to 321]



 

Fiesta de Corpus Christi, June (early to mid)

A religious celebration. Fiesta de Corpus Christi falls on a moveable date in early to mid June. There are services in all churches for those whose patron saint is named Manuel. Children in traditional costumes bring, fruit, vegetables and often live birds to their parish churches as token offerings. In colonial times this was the day people came to their churches to pay their tithes. In Suchiapa, the jaguars come to town, La Danza de Gigante is performed, and the altar known as Ermita del Santismo is erected especially for this festival. In Tarecuato, Michoacán, the festival is dedicated to itinerant vendors and noted for its use of decorated boxes, a form of folk art. In San Francisco del Mar, Oaxaca, typical country bull dances are performed and the saints are set-up on a beautiful altar. In San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, Malinches dance, La Danza de la Serpente is performed, music is made on turtle shells with deer antlers, and an altar is decorated with bowls festooned with balloons, all part of the Convite procession. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, processions, churches, food, offerings, ephemeral decorations, merry-making, drinking, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
52 1 Suchiapa, Chiapas, [Chiapaneco/Zoque] 2000
[CC-SUC.001 to 203]
box folder
53 2 Suchiapa, Chiapas, [Chiapaneco/Zoque] 2000
[CC-SUC.204 to 406]
1 Nvo. San Juan Parangaricutiro, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[CC-NJP.01 to 24]
1 Tarecuato, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[CC-TAR.001-168]
2 Tarecuato, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[CC-TAR.169 to 318]
1 San Francisco del Mar, Oaxaca, [Huave] 1994
[CC-SFM.001 to 138]
box folder
54 1 San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, [Huave] 1994
[CC-SMM.001 to 215]
2 San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, [Huave] 1994
[CC-SMM.216 to 475]
3 San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca, [Huave] 1994
[CC-SMM.476 to 688]
box folder
55 1 Atlantongo, Puebla, [Totonaco] 1996
[CC-AGO.001 to 176]
1 Cuetzalan, Puebla, [Totonaco] 1996
[CC-CPR.001 to 163]
1 Iczotitla, Puebla, [Totonaco] 1996
[CC-ICZ.01 to 52]
1 San Pablito, Puebla, [Totonaco] 1996
[CC-SPA.01 to 75]
1 Pahuatlan de Valle, Puebla, [Totonaco] 1996
[CC-PVA.01 to 47]
box folder
56 1 Papantla de Oalarte, Veracruz, [Totonaco], 1996
[CC-POL.001 to 165]
2 Papantla de Oalarte, Veracruz, [Totonaco], 1996
[CC-POL.166 to 259]



 

Fiesta de Clausura, June 15

A grade school graduation festival. In Tepepa, the town is adorned with ephemeral arches and the children perform a dance just outside of the school. Offerings of bread and gifts are given to the children who will graduate. The Danza de los Quetzales and others are performed. These slides document the traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #7 side B.
box folder
56 1 Tepepa, Puebla, [Nahua] 1992
[CL.001 to 162]



 

Fiesta de San Emanuelito, June 15

A celebration of the patron saint of Zihuateutla, Puebla. Villagers visit the springs for ritual bathing, in what is considered holy water. They light candles and leave them, along with the soap they used for bathing at the edge of the water. Of particular importance in this celebration is the performance of the Torero dance, involving dancers dressed as bullfighters and Charros. These slides document the musicians, dance, traditional costume, food, procession, offerings, ephemeral altar decorations, church, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side A.
box folder
56 1 Zihuateutla, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[SE.001 to 178]
box folder
57 2 Zihuateutla, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[SE.179 to 411]
3 Zihuateutla, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[SE.412 to 636]
4 Zihuateutla, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[SE.637 to 878]



 

Otomí Procession, June (mid)

A celebration of the Virgin of Guadalupe that includes a procession to the church where an altar is decorated with ephemeral offerings. The traditional Otomí costume features beautiful weaving and embroidery. These slides document the traditions associated with this event.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side A.
box folder
58 1 San Pablito, Puebla, [Otomí] 1992
[OP.01 to 51]



 

Fiesta de San Juan Bautista, June 23-24

A celebration of the patron Saint John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus Christ. Also known as “bath day," in rural areas people bathe in rivers in memory of the saint and to chase evil spirits away. In Chamula, paper balloons are launched with cotton burning engines, and beautifully crafted paper toritos are ignited during a fireworks display. In San Juan Copala, Trique women, wear their extraordinary huipils, and leave offerings made from rolled-up flowers and leaves. The Trique people, honor Saint John with a procession that includes smoke from burning incense and honor seven people with seven piles of tortillas and seven plates of mole, in a ritual called Los Siete. These slides document musicians, dances, processions, offerings, churches, ephemeral decorations, fireworks displays, and and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side A.
box folder
58 1 Chamula, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1991
[SJ-CHA.001 to 163]
2 Chamula, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1991
[SJ-CHA.164 to 306]
1 Malinalco, Edo. de México, 1997
[SJ-MCO.01 to 14]
1 San Juan Ahuacatlan, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[SJ-AHU.01 to 19]
1 San Juan Atzingo, Edo. de México, [Tlahulca/Ocuilteco] 1997
[SJ-SJA.001 to 161]
1 San Juan Bautista Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, [Cuicateco] 1990
[SJ-SJB.01 to 60]
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59 1 San Juan Copala, Oaxaca, [Trique] 1994
[SJ-SJC.001 to 219]
1 San Juan Sayultepec, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1994
[SJ-SJS.01 to 36]
1 Oluta, Veracruz, (La Malinche), [Popoluca/Mestizo] 2000
[SJ-OLU.01 to 89]



 

Fiesta de la Piedra de Xochipila, June 24

A pre-Hispanic sanctuary celebration. Xochipila, known as the Prince of Flowers, is the Aztec god of flowers, maize, love, games, beauty, and song. It is believed that his spirit is imbued at the Rock of Xochipila. Believers gather at the flower covered rock to make offerings at an altar located in a cave at the base of the rock and at a shrine located on the top. Offerings include fruit, bread, flowers, chickens, and more. The teponaxtle, a pre-Columbian drum, is played during the celebration. The drum is a sacred treasure of this community and is used on this day only. These slides document the musicians, dances, costumes, hats made from metallic paper, offerings, ephemeral decorations, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side B.
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59 Xicotepec de Juarez, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1992
[XO.001 to 207]



 

Fiesta de San Pedro, June 24

A celebration of the patron Saint Peter, the fisherman and miracle worker, was the leader of the Apostles. Born Simon, he was renamed “Peter” (rock) by Jesus to indicate that he would be the rock-like foundation on which the Church would be built. In San Pedro Huamelula, a five-day festival is taken up by street theatre re-enactments of the area’s turbulent history. Masked and costumed townspeople play the roles of Spanish grandees, English pirates and African slaves, all outsiders who contributed to the region’s cultural fabric. Mock battles ensue, some of them referring to violent ethnic disputes over land and property. At the heart of the celebration is a gesture of communal solidarity. At one point, a female alligator, is given citizenship and baptised, dressed in white like a bride, carried through town by the Marineros, and married off to an ususpecting groom. The Muliatas, Marineros, Turcos, and Negritos are all active participants in this celebration. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, hats, procession, banners, churches, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side B.
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60 1 Chenalho, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1990
[PE-CHO.001 to 097]
1 Huixtan, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1990
[PE-HUI.01 to 21]
1 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1991
[PE-SPH.0001 to 0199]
2 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1991
[PE-SPH.0001 to 0407]
3 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1991
[PE-SPH.0408 to 0573]
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61 1 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1992
[PE-SPH.0574 to 0799]
2 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1992
[PE-SPH.0800 to 1059]
3 San Pedro Huamelula, Oaxaca, [Chontal] 1992
[PE-SPH.1060 to 1263]
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62 1 Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, [Huave] 2000
[PE-SDT.01 to 67]



 

Fiesta del Nuevo Año, July

A traditional indigenous New Year celebration. The Seri of Punta Chueca used to be nomads on the shores of Sonora. Geographically one of the most beautiful places on earth, Punta Chueca is one of the poorest. This celebration highlights the tradition of face painting, both the technique and the end results. Women play a traditional game using pieces of cactus, and sea turtles are cooked and eaten. These slides document these events and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side B.
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62 1 Punta Chueca, Sonora, [Seri] 1999
[NA.001 to 116]



 

Fiesta de la Octava de San Pedro, July (early)

A celebration of the patron Saint Peter. Homage is paid in the village church. At the mayordomia, meat is smoked, chiles roasted and tortillas are made. Arches for the church are decorated with ephemera and hand crafted toritos are danced. These slides document these events and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side B.
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62 1 San Pedro Jicayan, Oaxaca, [Coastal Mixtec] 1992
[OC.01 to 92]



 

Fiesta de la Preciosa Sangre de Cristo, July 7

A religious celebration honoring the precious blood of Christ. These slides document the procession, elaborate feather headdresses, marmotas, (cloth globes with colored paper and pictures of saints painted on them that are candle lit at night), the Danza de la Pluma's, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #8 side B.
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62 1 Teotitlan Del Valle, Oaxaca, [Zapotec] 1990
[PS.01 to 77]



 

Fiesta de Santa Maria Magdalena, July 22

A celebration of the patron Saint Mary Magdalene, mother of Jesus. In Las Margaritas y Comitán de Domínguez, Chiapas, the Tojolabal celebration is marked by beautiful clothing, for which they are famous. In Tlalixtac, Oaxaca, the Cuicateco make offerings of colorful paper flowers. These slides document processions, offerings, ephemeral decorations, sacred candles, churches, musicians, fireworks, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #9 side A.
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62 1 Las Margaritas y Comitán de Domínguez, Chiapas, [Tojolabal] 2000
[MM-CDO.001 to 100]
1 Tlalixtac, Oaxaca, [Cuicateco] 1996
[MM-SMT.001 to 117]



 

Fiesta Patronal de Santiago Apóstol, July 24-25

A celebration of the apostle Saint James. Legend has it that during the re-conquest of Spain, St. James appeared on a white horse and slayed Moors, animating Spanish troops to fight harder to regain their country. He is the patron saint of Spain. This collection of slides is rich in detail with many dances and characters associated with those dances; the horsemen of Chiapas; Tastoanes of Zacatecas; the local agricultural dances such as Tlacololeros, Machomulas, jaguars of Guerrero; Tejorones, Tortuga, and Mascaritas dances of Oaxaca; the Voladores and Negrito dances of Puebla, Huehue dancers of Veracruz, and the famous Diablos dances of Juxtluahuaca, Oaxaca. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, food, drinking, processions, offerings, churches, rodeos, ephemeral decorations, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #9 side A and B.
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62 1 Amatenango del Valle, Chiapas, [Tzeltal Maya] 2000
[SA-AMA.01 to 56]
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63 1 Santiago del Pinar, Chiapas [Tzotzil Maya] 2000
[SA-SAP.001 to 153]
1 Quechultenango, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[SA-QUE.01 to 107]
1 Tixtla de Guerrero, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SA-TIX.001 to 194]
2 Tixtla de Guerrero, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SA-TIX.195 to 388]
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64 3 Tixtla de Guerrero, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[SA-TIX.389 to 583]
1 Zapotitlan Tablas, Guerrero, [Tlalpaneco] 1992
[SA-ZTA.001 to 206]
2 Zapotitlan Tablas, Guerrero, [Tlalpaneco] 1992
SA-ZTA.207 to 386]
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65 1 Jamiltepec, Oaxaca, [Mixteco de la Costa] 1994
[SA-JAM.001 to 178]
1 Santiago Juxtluahuaca, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1999
[SA-SJU.001 to 209]
2 Santiago Juxtluahuaca, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1999
[SA-SJU.210 to 413]
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66 3 Santiago Juxtluahuaca, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1999
[SA-SJU.414 to 607]
4 Santiago Juxtluahuaca, Oaxaca, [Mixteco] 1999
[SA-SJU.608 to 793]
1 Santiago Pinotepa Nacional, Oaxaca (Mayordomia), [Mestizo] 1994
[SA-SPN.001 to 168]
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67 1 Santiago Yancuictlalpan, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1996
[SA-SYA.001 to 196]
2 Santiago Yancuictlalpan, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1996
[SA-SYA.197 to 350]
1 Coatzintla, Veracruz, [Totonaco] 1991
[SA-COZ.001 to 158]
2 Coatzintla, Veracruz, [Totonaco] 1991
[SA-COZ.159 to 291]
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68 1 Chicontepec, Veracruz, [Huasteco] 1991
[SA-CHI.001 to 171]
2 Chicontepec, Veracruz, [Huasteco] 1991
[SA-CHI.172 to 296]
1 Juchipila, Zacatecas, (Danza de Tastoanes), [Mestizo] 1998
[SA-JUC.001 to 153]
1 Moyahua, Zacatecas, (Danza de Tastoanes), [Mestizo] 1998
[SA-MOY.01 to 53]



 

Fiesta de Santa Ana, July 26

A celebration of the patron Saint Anne, mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Saint Anne is patroness of women in labor. She is also patroness of miners, Christ being compared to gold, Mary to silver. The dances of the Nahua Guerrerense in Mochitlán, Guerrero are many and are richly costumed: Christians and Moors, St. James, Devil’s dance, Comanches dance, Danza de los Pescaditos, Manuelitos, Maromeros, and the Tlacololeros. These slides document the musicians, dance, costumes, procession, offerings, church, ephemeral decorations, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #9 side B.
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69 1 Mochitlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[AN-MOC.001 to 153]
1 Mochitlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[AN-MOC.154 to 356]
2 Mochitlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[AN-MOC.357 to 525]
3 Mochitlán, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 2001
[AN-MOC.526 to 697]



 

Último Domingo de Julio, July (end of)

The 250th anniversary celebration of the church in Atotonilco, Guanajuato. This is a penitent retreat capable of accommodating large numbers of penitents. These slides document the musicians, dance, procession, religious art, church, ephemeral decorations, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #9 side B.
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70 1 Atotonilco, Guanajuato, (note: Atotonilco and Celya are different towns. Trip began in Celaya with pictures of the church in Celaya, Guanajuato), [Mestizo/Chichimeco] 1998
[UD.001 to 183]
2 Atotonilco, Guanajuato, [Mestizo/Chichimeco] 1998
[UD.184 to 281]
3 Atotonilco, Guanajuato, [Mestizo/Chichimeco] 1998
[UD.282 to 321]
4 Atotonilco, Guanajuato, [Mestizo/Chichimeco] 1998
[UD.322 to 541]
5 Atotonilco, Guanajuato, [Mestizo/Chichimeco] 1998
[UD.542 to 657]



 

Fiesta de Santo Domingo, August 4

A celebration of the patron Saint Dominic syncretized with pre-Columbian custom. Located in the high-country of Oaxaca, is a shrine in the trunk of tree thought to be magical. Crosses are adorned with Yucca flowers, and Trique women wear beautiful dresses into which their entire history can be woven. This was one of the areas that the photographer was not very welcome. These slides document the shrine, mayordomia, ephemeral decorations, and traditional costume related to this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
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71 1 Santo Domingo del Estado, Oaxaca, [Trique] 1994
[SD.01 to 52]



 

Danza del Toro de Petate, August 10

A traditional dance laced with other rituals. The Afro-Mestizos of this area perform this sexually explicit costumed dance that centers around the devil and his wife la diabla. A bull is captured, slaughtered, and the pieces distributed to the celebrants. These slides document the dance, costumes and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
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71 1 Rio Viejo, Oaxaca, (Costa Chica), [Afro-Mestizo] 1994
[DT.001 to 103]



 

Fiesta de la Pubertad, August 10

A traditional Seri puberty festival. It is a custom for young women who have begun menstruation. A lean-to is erected where ceremonial face painting is performed. These slides document the musicians, ceremony, a typical Seri dance, games, face painting, food, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
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71 1 Punta Chueca, Sonora, [Seri] 1999
[PU.01 to 182]



 

Fiesta de San Lorenzo, August 10

A celebration of the patron Saint Lawrence. Legend has it that Saint Lawrence sought out the poor, widowed and orphans of Rome and claimed them to be the “treasures of the Church.” In San Lorenzo Texmelucan, Oaxaca, crosses wrapped in banana leaves are placed in front of the mayordomo’s house, and women dance with decorated baskets. In Huepac, Sonora, young girls dressed as duchesses and queens represent the community during the festival. These slides document the musicians, dance, procession, ephemeral decorations, offerings, churches, food, fireworks displays, rodeo, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
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71 1 San Lorenzo Texmelucan, Oaxaca, [Zapotec/Chatino] 1994
[LO-SLT.001 to 160]
box folder
HH 1 Huepac, Sonora, [Mestizo] 1999
[LO-HUE.01 to 31]



 

Niño Cieguecito, August 10

A celebration of the little patron saint of the Sonora market in Mexico City. The Convento de las Capuchinas is where this saint originates. Legend has it that he was part of a sculpture in the arms of a Virgin Mary located in a church in the state of Morelos. A thief tried to steal money from the offering boxes inside the church, but failed. Instead, he took the baby Jesus. When he took the baby it cried. He broke its arms and legs off to make it stop and it cried more. He found a gold pin and used it to scratch the baby’s eyes out, then took the baby up a hill and buried him under a rock. Later, the baby was found restored back into the depicted effigy. He was brought to the Nuns for care and cloistering. The actual blonde effigy remains there and is brought out only for this festival. These slides document the procession paying homage to the effigy of the Christ Child, the celebration to crown the Niño, a shrine with ephemeral decorations, the church, as well as, other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
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71 1 Convento de las Capuchinas, Puebla, [Mestizo] 1991
[CI.001 to 141]



 

La Asuncion de la Virgen Maria, August 15

A religious festival celebrating the Virgin of Charity that is tied to the agricultural growing season. In Sta. Maria Huazolotitlan, Oaxaca the Virging Mary's body lies in repose surrounded by apples. There is a horse race and a sexual Tortuga (Turtle) dance is performed. In Humantla, Tlaxcala, there are carnival rides. The town is famous for its beautiful ephemeral carpets made of colored sawdust, flowers, rice, rocks, glitter, confetti, bullets, aluminum, and more created solely to welcome the procession of the Virgin and last only until the participants trample them as the Virgin passes over. These slides document musicians, dances, processions, offerings, churches, ephemeral decorations, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side A.
box folder
72 1 Sta. Maria Huazolotitlan, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1994
[AV-SMH.001 to 250]
1 Huamantla, Tlaxcala, (Virgen de Caridad), [Tlaxcalteco/Mestizo] 1991
[AV-HUM.001 to 222]
2 Huamantla, Tlaxcala, (Virgen de Caridad), [Tlaxcalteco/Mestizo] 1992
[AV-HUM.223 to 442]
3 Huamantla, Tlaxcala, (Virgen de Caridad), [Tlaxcalteco/Mestizo] 1992
[AV-HUM.443 to 600]



 

Quinceanera, August 23

A rite of passage celebration for a girl’s fifteenth birthday. In Bacerac Sonora, the birthday girl is blessed by the priest and honored with a sermon. After this, there is dancing and merry-making at the mayordomia. These slides document the traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side B.
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73 1 Bacerac, Sonora 1999
[QU.001 to 140]



 

Fiesta de San Bartolo, August 24

A celebration of the patron Saint Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles. San Bartolo Zoogocho is located in the high-country of eastern Oaxaca. These slides document the musicians, dance, costume, procession, offerings, church, ephemeral decorations, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival. The Negrito dance and the Sombrerotes, dance of the big hats, are performed.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side B.
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73 1 San Bartolo Zoogocho, Oaxaca, [Zapoteco] 1996
[BO.001 to 249]



 

Fiesta de San Agustín August 28

A celebration of the patron Saint Augustine. He stands for the need for personal responsibility and dignity. These slides document the procession of the festival that includes baskets decorated in typical Oaxcan style.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side B.
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73 1 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1988
[AG.01 to .05]



 

Fiesta de Santa Rosa de Lima, August 30

A celebration of the patron Saint Rose of Lima, Peru, the first canonized saint of the New World. She is known for her excessive practice of mortification and a life of penance. During the last few years of her life, Rose cared for homeless children, the elderly and the sick. This was the beginning of social services in Peru. These slides document the music, Matachine dancers, costumes, church, ephemera, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side B.
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73 1 Muzquiz, Coahuila, [Mestizo] 1998
[RL.001 to 174]



 

Fiesta de Shanne, September 4

A traditional indigenous Kickapoo celebration. The elders drum in front of the house of culture, women and children of the village dance, and a procession takes place at night. These slides document the musicians playing a water drum, costumes, dance, food, procession, ephemera, and other traditions associated with this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #10 side B.
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74 Nacimiento de los Indios, Coahuila, [Kickapoo] 1998
[SH.001 to 110]



 

Fiesta de la Natividad de la Virgen, September 8

A religious celebration of the Nativity. In Santa María de Ocotán, Durango, the Ixcaignon, a cranium relic of a euhemeristic folk saint, is paid homage. In Cuzama, Yucatán, a bull ring is constructed out of bamboo for the festival bull fight and the Vaqueria dance, traditional to all Yucatec towns is performed. The whole community participates in the dance, men dressed in white and women in beautifully embroidered clothing. In Sotuta, Yucatán there is a village bullfight. In the end, the bulls are spared from death. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, food, offerings, ephemeral decorations, churches, bull fights, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #10 side B and #11 side A.
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74 1 Santa Maria de Ocotán, Durango, [Tepehuan Indians] 1998
[NV-SMO.001 to 198]
2 Santa Maria de Ocotán, Durango, [Tepehuan Indians] 1998
[NV-SMO.199 to 394]
3 Santa Maria de Ocotán, Durango, [Tepehuan Indians] 1998
[NV-SMO.395 to 569]
1 Coatepec, Edo. de México, [Matlazinca] 1998
[NV-COP.01 to 16]
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75 1 Huautla de Jimenez, Oaxaca, [Mazateco/Mestizo] 1996
[NV-HJI.001 to 124]
1 Bacadehuachi, Sonora, 1999
[NV-BAI.001 to 131]
1 Nacori Chico, Sonora, 1999
[NV-NAO.01 to 12]
1 Cuzama, Yucatán, (Vaqueria), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-CUZ.001 to 159]
1 Dzan, Yucatán, (Vaqueria), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-DZA.001 to 133]
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76 1 Sotuta, Yucatán, (Procesión), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-SOT.001 to 159]
2 Sotuta, Yucatán, (Pachanga de Toros), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-SOT.160 to 365]
3 Sotuta, Yucatán, (Pachanga de Toros), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-SOT.366 to 578]
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77 4 Sotuta, Yucatán, (mayordomia), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-SOT.579 to 746]
5 Sotuta, Yucatán, (Casa de Gremios), [Yucatec Maya] 2000
[NV-SOT.747 to 962]



 

Fiesta de San Nicolas Tolentino, September 10

A celebration of the patron Saint Nicholas of Tolentino, the Confessor. He is known for his numerous conversions and many miracles. In Zitlala, Guerrero a variety of dances are performed including the Christians and Moors, Comanches, Machitos, and Maromeros. Important to this location is the playing of the pagan Teponaxtle drum inside of the church, which the Catholic Priests tolerate only during this celebration. In Colotlán, Jalisco, Matachine dances continue throughout the night. In Terrenate, Tlaxcala, the dance of the Pastoras and the dance of the Cuchillos, a knife dance, are performed. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, processions, offerings, ephemeral decorations, animal sacrifice, carnival rides, churches, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 side A.
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77 1 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[NT-ZIT.001 to 217]
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78 2 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[NT-ZIT.218 to 419]
3 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[NT-ZIT.420 to 624]
4 Zitlala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[NT-ZIT.625 to 801]
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79 1 Colotlán, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[NT-COL.001 to 184]
2 Colotlán, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[NT-COL.185 to 343]
1 Terrenate, Tlaxcala, [Tlaxcalteco] 1996
[NT-TER.001 to 168]
2 Terrenate, Tlaxcala, [Tlaxcalteco] 1996
[NT-TER.169 to 256]



 

Aparicion de la Santa Cruz (Xilocruz), September 14

A religious tradition centered on the exaltation and adornment of the cross. On roadsides, hillsides, fields, houses, churches and more, crosses are adorned with ephemera that is often beautiful and remarkable. These slides document the crosses and the surrounding landscapes and architecture found in these locations.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 side A.
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80 1 Huitziltepec y Apango, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[XI-HAP.001 to 099]
1 Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[XI-XAC.01 to 19]



 

Diez y Seis (Dia de la Independencia), September 16

A patriotic festival celebrating the independence of Mexico. This is a national holiday in which Mexicans remember the beginning of the revolution against Spain. There are fiestas all across the country, the largest in Mexico City. The hero of this day is Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, called “the Father of Mexican Independence.” At eleven o’clock on the night of September 15, 1810, Father Hidalgo rang the church bell in Dolores, Morelos, as if to call his congregation to Mass. When the people gathered, he rallied them to action, giving them the Grito de Dolores ; “Viva Mexico! Viva la independencia!.” Today, on the eve of independence, the President of Mexico appears on the balcony of the National Palace, rings the historic church bell and gives the cry. The festivities include: musicians, patriotic processions with flags and children dressed as patriotic heroes, dancing, costumes, masks, theatrics, ephemeral decorations, merry-making, and fireworks displays. In Teleloapan, Guerrero, home of famous devil mask maker, Fidel de la Fuente, there are processions and judging of devils. In a charreada ,in Atotonilco el Grande, Hidalgo, the charros ride horses, rope steers and follow a tradition of attempting to catch a steer by its tail. In Mascota, Jalisco a promenade is held where the girls walk one way and the boys the other in an old fashioned custom of courtship. In the Zocálo, in Mexico City, the largest celebration is held with parades, banners, colorful patriotic decorations, dignitaries and tremendous fireworks displays. These slides document these and other traditions associated with the celebration held in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 sides A and B.
box folder
80 1 Arcelia, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1992
[DS-ARC.01 to 30]
1 Cuidad Altamirano, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1992
[DS-CIA.01 to 81]
1 Teleloapan, Guerrero, (Concurso de Diablos), [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1992
[DS-TEL.001 to 183]
2 Teleloapan, Guerrero, (Concurso de Diablos), [Nahua Guerrerense/Mestizo] 1992
[DS-TEL.184 to 306]
1 Tlapa de Comonfort, Guerrero, [Mestizo/Tlapaneco] 1994
[DS-TCO.01 to 76]
1 Tlapehuala, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1992
[DS-TLH.01 to 35]
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81 1 Atotonilco el Grande, Hidalgo, [Mestizo] 1991
[DS-ATO.01 to 47]
1 Huasca de Ocampo, Hidalgo, [Mestizo] 1991
[DS-HOC.01 to 65]
1 Otumba, Hidalgo, [Mestizo] 1991
[DS-OTU.01 to 03]
1 San Miguel Regla, Hidalgo, [Mestizo] 1991
[DS-MIG.01 to 11]
1 Mascota, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[DS-MAS.001 to 185]
2 Mascota, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[DS-MAS.186 to 372]
3 Mascota, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[DS-MAS.373 to 539]
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82 3 Talpa, Jalisco, [Mestizo] 1998
[DS-TAL.01 to 18]
1 Cuidad de México, D.F., (Zocálo), [Mestizo] 1991
[DS-ZME.001 to .059]
1 Cuidad de México, D.F., (Zocálo), [Mestizo] 1996
[DS-ZME.060 to 141]
1 Zacatecas, Zacatecas, (Practicando para la Batalla de la Toma de Zacatecas), [Mestizo] 1989
[DS-ZAC.01 to 04]



 

Fiesta de San Mateo, September 21

A celebration of the patron Saint Matthew and the first fruits harvest. Zacualpan, Guerrero is known for its remarkable pre-Columbian style pottery. These slides document the musicians, dance, procession, food, religious folk art, ephemeral decorations, church, fireworks display, and other traditions associated with this festival. .
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 side B.
box folder
82 1 Zacualpan, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[MA.001 to 202]
2 Zacualpan, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[MA.203 to 313]



 

Fiesta de San Miguel Arcangel, September 29

A celebration of the patron Saint Michael tied with mythical tradition and the agricultural cycles. The patron saint’s feast day falls on 29 September, coinciding with the end of the mythical battle of conquest of the native groups of each area. It is also a first fruits festival, and in an ancient pre-Hispanic custom for protecting harvests and houses from evil spirits on this day, crosses are hung or placed in a variety of areas. The crosses remain in place throughout the year. In Huixtan, Chiapas, the people wear beautiful costumes indigenous to the area. In Aquilpa, Guerrero, women carry stone idols called chaniques , (pre-Columbian fertility fetishes), in procession. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, processions, carnival rides, offerings, ephemeral decorations, churches, food, and other traditions associated with this festival as celebrated in these various villages and towns.
The descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 side B.
box folder
82 1 Huixtan, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 2000
[MI-HUI.01 to 71]
1 Aquilpa, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[MI-AQU.001 to 100]
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83 1 Chiepetepec, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[MI-CHT.001 to 223]
1 Baca Choix, Sinaloa, [Mayo Sinaloense] 1999
[MI-BCH.001 to 176]
2 Baca Choix, Sinaloa, [Mayo Sinaloense] 1999
[MI-BCH.177 to 255]



 

Fiesta del Tambor, October 4

This is a first fruits celebration, called the Festival of the Drums. The drum is the center of the festival and is played as a way to communicate with the Huichol deities. The Huichol have never been subjugated and maintain a separateness from Christianity, considering Jesus Christ a brother. These slides document the drumming, dancing, costumes, plant and crop offerings, ceremonial fires, ephemera (particularly the nierika or god’s eye), ritual drinks and food, dignitaries and shamans, dancing, and other traditions associated with this celebration. The festival concludes with a dance performed by children.
The descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #11 side B.
box folder
84 1 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.001 to 142]
2 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.143 to 258]
3 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.259 to 294]
4 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.295 to 386]
5 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.387 to 433]
6 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.434 to 494]
7 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.495 to 629]
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85 8 Guadalupe de Ocotan, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TM.630 to 786]



 

Fiesta de San Francisco Asis, October 4

A celebration of patron Saint Francis of Assisi, known as a miracle worker and for his love of nature. In Apango, Guerrero, women dance will little clay bulls full of mezcal. Horsemen herd bulls through the town streets, and slaughter the animals. In addition, many drink the blood of the sacrificed animals. In Chietla, Puebla, a variety of dances are performed including: Danza de los Tecuanes, Danza de los Chinhelos, and Danza de los Vaquaros. In Real de Catorce, SLP, the Pastorelas and Matachines dance, and the pilgrims come to honor the saint and participate in a theatrical performance of good versus evil. In Magdalena Kino, Sonora the celebration of Padre Kino is synchretized with the Saint’s celebration. Pilgims form lines to pay homage to Padre San Francisco Xavier. Here, the Yaqui dance is performed. In Maycova, Sonora a rodeo is held. In San Francisquito, Sonora, the the Papago name for the festival is Chuwy-Gusk. In Tamulte de Sabanas, Tabasco, pilgrims arrive on decorated bicycles and folk art boats adorn the walls of the church. These slides document the music, dance, costumes, masks, procession, animal sacrifice, rodeos, food, offerings, ephemera, fireworks displays, and other traditions associated with these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #11 side A and #12 side B.
box folder
85 1 Charco 27, Hickiwan District, Arizona, [Papago] 1999
[FA-HIC.01 to 42]
1 Apango, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[FA-APA.001 to 284]
1 Tixtla de Guerrero, Guerrero, [Nahua Guerrerense] 1994
[FA-TIX.01 to 26]
box folder
86 1 Chietla, Puebla, [Nahua] 1996
[FA-CHE.001 to 191]
2 Chietla, Puebla, [Nahua] 1996
[FA-CHE.192 to 368]
1 Real de Catorce, San Luis Potosi, [Mestizo] 1990
[FA-RCA.01 to 89]
1 Magdalena Kino, Sonora, [Mestizo] 1999
[FA-MAG.01 to 62]
box folder
87 1 Maycova, Sonora, [Pima Alto] 1991
[FA-MAY.001 to 197]
2 Maycova, Sonora, [Pima Alto] 1991
[FA-MAY.198 to 312]
1 San Francisquito, Sonora, [Papago] 1999
[FA-SFR.001 to 157]
2 San Francisquito, Sonora, [Papago] 1999
[FA-SFR.158 to 254]
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88 1 Tamulte de Sabanas, Tabasco, [Chontal] 2000
[FA-TAM.001 to 211]



 

Fiesta de la Virgen del Rosario, October 7

A religious celebration of the Virgin of the Rosary. Villa Hidalgo Yalalag, Oaxaca is located in the high-country of eastern Oaxaca. This festival is impressive because of the number and variety of dances it offers, such as: Danza de Negritos, Danza de Mixes, Danza de Bijanos, Danza de Hippies, and Danza de Bureaucratos. These slides document the musicians, costumes, procession, ephemera, and other traditions associated with this celebration.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #12 side A.
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88 1 Villa Hidalgo Yalalag, Oaxaca, [Zapotec, Yalalteco] 1996
[RO.001 to 159]
2 Villa Hidalgo Yalalag, Oaxaca, [Zapotec, Yalalteco] 1996
[RO.160 to 318]



 

Fiesta de PaiPai, October 14-15

A gathering of the indigenous Pai Pai for the purpose of performing the Kuri Kuri, a traditional dance. Celebrants gather in front of the mayordomia to dance. Dancers carry a rattle that is used in the performance. An integral part of this celebration is the preparation of meat to be served to the celebrants. These slides document the activities of this celebration.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #12 side A.
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89 1 Santa Catarina, Baja California North, [PaiPai] 1999
[PP.001 to 189]



 

Niño Fidencio, October 14-21

A pilgrimage to the shrine of Niño Fidencio, the healer. The annual fall celebration honors his death. The details of this festival mirror those found in the March 14 festival which honors his birth. The pilgrims gather at the pirul tree. They circle the tree and then crawl, roll, or otherwise make their way up the avenue to the shrine. Materías, (healers thought to have inherieted his healing powers), wear elaborate sateen robes and perform healings and offer blessings. Vendors sell sacred pomade, crosses and religious folk art. At this particular festival the slides document the activities of the pilgrimage, including the exorcism of a woman. Matachines dance.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #12 side B.
box folder
89 1 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0001 to 0197]
2 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0198 to 0414]
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90 3 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0415 to 0597]
4 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0598 to 0770]
5 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0771 to 0847]
6 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.0848 to 1057]
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91 7 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.1058 to 1211]
8 Espinazo, Nuevo León, [Mestizo] 1998
[NF.1212 to 1305]



 

Día de los Muertos, Todos Santos, Xantolo, 30 October - 2 November

An important religious festival honoring the souls and/or spirits of dead. In ancient times the Indians held a month-long festival of Death and Flowers as a reminder of the beauty and fleeting nature of life. The last day of their celebration fell on November 1. This was the same day as the Spanish festival called All Souls’ Day , when spirits of the dead were thought to return to earth. Today in Mexico El Dia de los Muertos, or Todos Santos, begins on October 31 and lasts through November 2. All manner of ephemeral decorations relating to death are created for the occasion. Families make careful preparations for the fiesta. Graves and tombstones are swept and cleaned. In their homes they set up altars with pictures of dead family members. Around these altars they place candles, flowers, incense, favorite foods an other ephemeral offerings. A traditional bread called pan de muertos is baked, often in human form. The festival is a time of processions featuring skeleton masks and other costumes representing death. Above all, the Day of the Dead is a time for families to visit cemeteries. They bring candles, offerings of food, drink, and bundles of zempasuchil, (marigolds - the flower of the dead). Families have picnics in the cemeteries. At night, candles glow as families keep watch beside the decorated graves communing with those buried there. Although the festival is centered on death, it is not an unhappy time. Rather, it is a time to connect the past and the future with the present. These slides document musicians, dances, costumes, masks, cemeteries, ephemeral grave decorations, household altars, church altars, families and individuals paying homage, merry-making, effigies, folk art, food, and other local traditions associated with these individual towns and villages.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #12 side B, #13 sides A and B, #14 side A.
box folder
91 1 Chenalho, Chiapas, [Tzotzil Maya] 1987
[DM-CHO.01 to 06]
1 El Male, Chiapas, [Mam] 2000
[DM-MAL.001 to 194]
1 Guadalupe Victoria, Chiapas, [Jacalteco] 2000
[DM-GVI.001 to 141]
box folder
92 1 Aguacatitla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-AGU.01 to 22]
1 Atlapexco, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-ATX.01 to 31]
1 Chililico, Hidalgo, [Huastec Indians] 991
[DM-CIC.01 to 20]
1 Chichimecatitla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-CHQ.01 to 02]
1 Cochiscuatitla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-COC.01 to 03]
1 Cuatenahuatl, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-CUA.01 to 06]
1 Huejutla de Reyes, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca/Mestizo] 1991
[DM-HRE.01 to 14]
1 Huautla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-HUA.001 to 158]
1 Jaltocan, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-JAL.01 to 07]
1 La Corrala, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-LCA.01 to 93]
1 Macuxtepetla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-MAC.01 to 97]
1 San Pedro Tziltzacuapan, Hidalgo, [Tepehua] 1996
[DM-SPT.01 to 72]
1 Tecolotitla, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-TEC.01 to 19]
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93 1 Tehuetlan, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca] 1991
[DM-THE.001 to 204]
1 Yahualica, Hidalgo, [Nahua de la Huasteca/Mestizo] 1991
[DM-YAH.001 to 107]
1 Cheran, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-CHN.01 to 06]
1 Erongaricuaro, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1984
[DM-ERO.01]
1 Ihuatzio, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1984, 1997
[DM-IHU.001 to 139]
1 Ocumicho, Michoacán, (Cerca de), [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-OCU.001 to 024]
2 Ocumicho, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-OCU.025 to 119]
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94 1 Pantamban, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-PAT.01 to 03]
1 Paracho, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-PAR.01 to 24]
1 Patzcuaro, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-PTZ.01 to 17]
1 Tarecuato, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-TAR.01 to 95]
1 Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1997
[DM-TZI.001 to 283]
1 Tzurumutaro, Michoacán, [Purepecha] 1984
[DM-TZU.01 to 04]
1 Collantes, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1994
[DM-COS.01 to 82]
1 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1994
[DM-OAX.01 to 22]
1 Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1994
[DM-PUE.01 to 06]
1 Santos Reyes Nopala, Oaxaca, [Chatiño] 1994
[DM-SRE.01 to 29]
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95 1 Acatepec, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-ACT.01 to 45]
1 Altepexi, Puebla, [Chocho] 1990
[DM-ALT.01 to 40]
1 Coatepec, Cacalosuchil, Tezonteopan, Atzitzihuacan, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-CPC.01 to 50]
1 Huauchinango, Puebla, [Nahua/Totonaco] 1996
[DM-HCH.01 to 48]
1 Huaquechula, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-HUQ.001 to 232]
1 Huejotzingo, Cuanala, Teozintlan, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-HUZ.01 to 39]
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96 1 San Gabriel Chilac, Puebla, [Chocho] 1990
[DM-SGC.001 to 255]
1 Tonanzintla, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-TON.01]
1 Xalmimilulco, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-XZL.001 to 182]
1 Zacatepec, Puebla, [Nahua Poblana] 1998
[DM-ZAP.01 to 58]
1 Chancah Veracruz, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-CVE.01 to 06]
1 El Señor, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-SEN.01 to 10]
1 Felipe Carillo Puerto, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-FCP.01 to 31]
1 Tihosuco, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-TIH.01 to 17]
1 Tixcacal Guardia, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-TGU.01 to 05]
1 Xiulub, Quintana Roo, [Cruzob Maya] 1995
[DM-XUI.01 to 13]
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97 1 Los Angeles, Sinoloa, (also known as Ejido Triunfo de Los Angeles), [Mayo Sinaloense] 1999
[DM-LOA.001 to 150]
2 Los Angeles, Sinoloa, (also known as Ejido Triunfo de Los Angeles), [Mayo Sinaloense] 1999
[DM-LOA.151 to 236]
3 Los Angeles, Sinoloa, (also known as Ejido Triunfo de Los Angeles), [Mayo Sinaloense] 1999
[DM-LOA.237 to 246]
1 El Jupare, Sonora, [Mayo Sonorense] 1999
[DM-JUP.001 to 201]
2 El Jupare, Sonora, [Mayo Sonorense] 1999
[DM-JUP.202 to 218]
1 Huatabampo, Sonora, [Mayo Sonorense] 1999
[DM-HUB.01 to 51]
1 Huatabampito, Sonora, [Mayo Sonorense] 1999
[DM-HUP.01 to 64]
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98 1 Chalma, Veracruz, [Huastec Indians] 1991
[DM-CHM.01 to 20]
1 Pisa Flores, Veracruz, [Tepehua] 1996
[DM-PFL.001 to 168]
2 Pisa Flores, Veracruz, [Tepehua] 1996
[DM-PFL.169 to 267]
1 Platon Sanchez, Veracruz, [Huastec Indians] 1991
[DM-PSA.01 to 18]
1 Chan Chen, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-CCH.01 to 17]
1 Chan Santa Cruz, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-CSC.01 to 09]
1 Chan Yodzonot, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-CYT.01 to 20]
1 Chichimila, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-CCA.01 to 19]
1 Chichen Itza, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-CIT.001 to 145]
1 Dzitnup, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-DZI.01 to 09]
1 Hoctun, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-HON.01 to 41]
1 Tekom, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-TEK.01 to 07]
1 Xocen, Yucatán, [Yucatec Maya] 1995
[DM-XOC.01 to 02]



 

Fiesta de San Martín Porres, November 11

A celebration of the patron Saint Martin de Porres, a mulatto. He nursed the sick and was known for treating all people regardless of their race or status. He was instrumental in founding an orphanage, and took care of slaves brought from Africa. In San Juan Guichicovi, women form a procession to the church carrying large candles, and offerings of flowers. Pilgrims souls are cleansed by the rubbing of the candles. These slides document the musicians, dance, procession, offerings, blessings, ephemeral decorations and other traditions associated this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #14 side A.
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99 1 San Juan Guichicovi, Municipio Matias Romero, Oaxaca, [Mixe] 2000
[MP.001 to 198]
2 San Juan Guichicovi, Municipio Matias Romero, Oaxaca, [Mixe] 2000
[MP.199 to 317]



 

Velorio del Chente Cohetero, November 22

A wake for Vincente (Chente) Cohetero, known as the best pyrotechnic of the area. These slides document the activities of the wake, as well as, show examples of unfinished fireworks.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #14 side A and B.
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99 1 Juchitan de Zaragoza, Oaxaca, [Zapoteco] 2000
[VC.01 to 86]



 

Fiesta de la Immaculada Concepcion, December 8-24

A religious celebration and feast called the Conception of Mary arose in the Eastern Church in the seventh century. In the eleventh century it received its current name, the Immaculate Conception . Mary was full of grace and free of sin from the first moment of her existence. In Cardonal, Hidalgo the festivities are marked by decorated carpets made of colored sawdust and other ephemeral materials. In a night procession, the Virgin is feted with confetti. In Santa Maria Zacatepec, Oaxaca the Dance of the Conquest is choreographed with great pageantry and continues over a period of two days. Elaborate costumes and masks are well represented, and the saints are beautifully dressed. In Juquila, Oaxaca, the Virgin of Juquila is venerated. The town of 4,500 receives 450,000 visitors for this festival. Pilgrims arrive via decorated trucks, bicycles, on foot and some on their knees to honor the Virgin. They wear clothes festooned with milagros. Priests bless the crowd and the pedimiento, or altar, that is crowded with examples of what blessings or favors pilgrims have asked for made out of mud and clay available at the site. These slides document musicians, dances, pageantry, costumes, masks, ephemeral decorations, folk art, processions, churches, fireworks construction and displays, and other traditions associated with these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #14 side B.
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99 1 Cardonal, Hidalgo, [Otomi] 1996
[IC-CAR.001 to 231]
box folder
100 1 Santa María Zacatepec, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1991
[IC-SMZ.001 to 199]
2 Santa María Zacatepec, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1991
[IC-SMZ.200 to 399]
3 Santa María Zacatepec, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1991
[IC-SMZ.400 to 590]
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101 1 Juquila, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1990
[IC-JUQ.001 to 068]
2 Juquila, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1990
[IC-JUQ.069 to 322]
3 Juquila, Oaxaca, [Tacuate/Mestizo] 1990
[IC-JUQ.323 to 520]



 

Tatei Aramara December 12

A traditional ceremony honoring the Mother of the Ocean. According to Huichol belief, her spirit is imbued in a white rock off the shore of Nayarit. The indigenous people go to Isla del Rey, (Island of the King) to invoke her spirit, pray and make offerings. There is a ceremonial fire at which the Marakame, shaman of the culture, talks to the spirit about all that has happened that year in the village. He talks throughout the night appropriating all of the water for the coming year. A steer is sacrificed and butchered, early the next morning. The ceremony ends with the division of the meat among the participants. These slides document the activities associated with this ritual ceremony.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #15 side B.
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102 1 Isla del Rey, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TA-IRE.001 to 201]
2 Isla del Rey, Nayarit, [Huichol] 1998
[TA-IRE.202 to 332]



 

Fiesta de la Virgen de Guadalupe y La Villa de Guadalupe December 12

A religious festival held every year to honor The Virgin of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. She is also identified with the Aztec earth goddess and mother of humankind, Tonantzin. The feast in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe goes back to the sixteenth century. Mary’s appearance to Juan Diego was a powerful reminder that Mary and the God who sent her accept all peoples. In the context of the sometimes rude and cruel treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards, the apparition was a rebuke to the Spaniards and an event of vast significance for the indigenous peoples. Millions today show their respect to her by making pilgrimages to the Basilica in La Villa de Guadalupe. According to legend, it is the place where Mary instructed Juan Diego that the bishop of Mexico was to build a chapel in her honor. Smaller celebrations take place in churches throughout Mexico. In the Cuidad de Mexico, La Villa de Guadalupe is a festival that draws enormous crowds. Dances from a wide variety of indigenous cultures are performed. Ephemera and religious art are plentiful. The photographer returned to this festival in four different years. These slides document the dance, pageantry, procession, costumes, ephemera, religious art, pilgrims and merry-making associated with this festival. In the smaller towns of Chiapas, Baborigami, Chihuahua, and Tulancingo, Hidalgo, San Blas, Nayarit, and Santa Maria Acapulco, SLP, there are typical dances, costumes, processions, and other traditions associated with these various villages and towns as documented by these slides.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassettes #14 side B, #15 side A and B, #16 side A.
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102 1 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas,(shows Parachico dancers) [Chiapaneco] 2000
[VG-PAC.01 to 56]
1 Baborigami, Chihuahua, [Mestizo/Zoque] 1999
[VG-BAB.001 to 147]
1 Tulancingo, Hidalgo, [Mestizo] 1996
[VG-TUC.01 to 08]
1 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1990
[LG.001 to 0231]
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103 2 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1990
[LG.0232 to 0480]
3 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1990
[LG.0481 to 0609]
1 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1991
[LG.0610 to 0802]
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104 2 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1991
[LG.0803 to 1000]
1 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1992
[LG.1001 to 1229]
2 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1992
[LG.1230 to 1443]
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105 3 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 1992
[LG.1444 to 1679]
1 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 2000
[LG.1680 to 1875]
2 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 2000
[LG.1876 to 2013]
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106 3 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 2000
[LG.2014 to 2139]
4 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 2000
[LG.2140 to 2296]
5 Cuidad de Mexico, México DF, [Multicultural/Mestizo] 2000
[LG.2297 to 2513]
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107 1 San Blas, Nayarit, [Mestizo] 1998
[TA-SBL.01 to 79]
1 Santa María Acapulco, San Luis Potosí, [Pame] 1996
[VG-SMA.001 to 196]



 

Barbacoa Tradicional, December 15

A traditional barbeque in the style of the Otomí. These slides document the preparation and consumption of meat.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #16 side A.
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107 1 Barranca de Tolantongo, Hidalgo, [Otomi] 1996
[BB.01 to 65]



 

Fiesta de los Flores, December 15

A ritual and religious celebration. Floreros , flower gatherers, perform the yearly ritual of collecting bromeliads from the jungles of Chiapas in order to create two separate mangers as part of a celebration of the Nativity. Batches of blooming bromeliads are carried 30 miles down a mountain to the town of Chiapa de Corzo, where the Floreros are from. Homage is paid at the home where the Christ child is being kept. The little Christ is then taken in procession to the next location where it will rest. The flowers are taken to the church where they are blessed. Dancing, praying, and offerings are made. Two separate mangers for the little Christ are fashioned from the flowers. These slides document the activities occurring in the town of Navenchauc during this festival.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #16 side A.
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107 1 Navenchauc, Chiapas, [Chiapaneco] 2000
[FL.001 to 182]
2 Navenchauc, Chiapas, [Chiapaneco] 2000
[FL.183 to 306]



 

Posada, December 16-24

A religious celebration beginning on December 16 and lasting nine days, through December 24. Posada (inn or shelter) processions reenact the search of Mary and Joseph for lodging. In the town of San Pedro y Pablo Ayutla, Oaxaca the procession is theatrical as celebrants go house to house chanting to be let in. Beautiful music accompanies the procession. There is dancing and food prepared in the Mayordomia. These slides document the procession, dance, Mayordomia, household altars and effigies of Jesus and Mary that celebrants carry from house to house.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #16 side A.
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108 1 San Pedro y Pablo Ayutla, Oaxaca, [Mixe] 1999
[PO-SPP.01 to 62]
1 Santa María Ixcatlán, Oaxaca, [Chocho] 1999
[PO-SPI.01 to 19]



 

Fiesta de la Noche de los Rábanos, December 23-24

A traditional agricultural competition and festival. This tradition dates back to colonial times, when missionaries taught natives how to cultivate radishes that reached extraordinary proportions. It began in a small Oaxaca city neighborhood, known as La Trinidad de las Huertas. The event commemorating radishes is held on the evening of December 23, in Oaxaca City’s main square, in front of the Government Palace. Diego Rivera is credited with making this festival famous. A great exhibition of figures made of radishes is on display. Figures of animals, humans, saints, trucks, and other characters are fashioned using this vegetable. Artists are rewarded for their ingenuity and skill. This creative competition has expanded to include artwork made with other vegetables, dried flowers, and corn husks. These slides document examples of the ephemeral art created from the vegetables, as well as, the Christmas Eve celebrations associated with the town of Oaxaca, Oaxaca. They include: typical costumes of the seven different Oaxaca regions, dance, procession, and ephemeral objects related to mangers.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #16 side A and B.
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108 1 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1992
[NR.001 to 104]
2 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1992
[NR.105 to 232]
3 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1992
[NR.233 to 325]
4 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, [Mestizo] 1992
[NR.326 to 450]



 

Navidad, December 23-25

Christmas celebrations, some with ties to the agricultural planting cycles, particularly the planting of corn. In Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas the Floreros prepare a manger in the cathedral and in the Mayordomo’s house using the harvested bromeliads (see Fiesta de los Flores). Additional beautiful ephemeral artwork is fashioned from the bromeliads on December 8. In El Cerrito, Chiapas a house is constructed where corn is planted, it includes an altar with offerings of seeds and a cross. There is dancing and a fireworks display. In Francisco I. Madero, Chiapas, there is likewise a house constructed for the corn and a procession of women carrying the seeds for planting, (the house is opened on December 24). Offerings of seeds, herbs and candles are made at the altar. A manger is constructed using strings of flowers; bread is baked in human forms, and the little Christ is carried in procession from house to house. In the small and poor town of San Pedro Soteapan, Veracruz, a manger is fashioned completely out of poinsettia flowers. These slides document the procession, dance, construction, food, ephemera, offerings, churches, fireworks displays and other traditions associated with the celebrations in these various villages and towns.
A descriptive narrative of these slides is found on audiocassette #16 side B.
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109 1 Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, (Chuntas), [Zoque/Chiapenco] 2000
[ND-COR.001 to .060]
2 Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, (iglesia y altar del Mayordomia), [Zoque/Chiapenco] 2000
[ND-COR.061 to .148]
1 Copoya, Chiapas, (Christmas Eve), [Zoque/Maya] 2000
[ND-COY.01 to 96]
1 El Cerrito, Chiapas, (construccion del Nacimiento, Dec. 23), [Zoque/Maya] 2000
[ND-ELC.01 to 18]
2 El Cerrito, Chiapas, (Christmas Eve), [Zoque/Maya] 2000
[ND-ELC.19 to 48]
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110 1 Francisco I. Madero, Chiapas, (construccion del Nacimiento, Dec. 23), [Zoque] 2000
[ND-FIM.001 to 132]
2 Francisco I. Madero, Chiapas, (December 23), [Zoque] 2000
[ND-FIM.133 to 182]
3 Francisco I. Madero, Chiapas, (Decmeber 24), [Zoque] 2000
[ND-FIM.183 to 292]
1 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, (bailando de los niños), [Zoque] 2000
[ND-TUG.01 to 48]
1 Valle Nacional, Oaxaca, [Chinanteco] 1999
[ND-F.VNA.01]
1 San Pedro Soteapan, Veracruz, (December 24), [Popoluca/Mixe] 1999
[ND-SPS.001 to 132]
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Environs/Culturas

These non-festival slides include examples of the landscapes, architecture, villages and towns, ephemera, and indigenous peoples George O. Jackson, Jr. encountered on his travels across México to and from the various festivals he photographed. They are arranged alphabetically by states within the country of México.
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111 Baja California
Cabo San Lucas 1999
Ensenada, (Rosario Hotel, Gift Shop) 1999
Guerrero Negro 1999
La Paz 1999
La Rumorosa 1999
Mulege 1999
Palmilla 1999
San Ignacio 1999
San Jose del Cabo 1999
Santa Rosalita (cerca de) 1999
Tijuana 1999
Todos Santos 1999
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112 Chiapas
Tenejapa, (men's portraits) 1989
Yaxchilan, (San Cristobal de las Casas and Mayan Ruins) 2000
Miscellaneous 2000
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113 Chihuahua
Guadalupe y Calvo to Baborigame 1999
Janos, (Casas Grandes) 1999
Northern Chihuahua 1999
San Jose de Babicora 1999
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114 Chihuahua cont'd
Miscellaneous: Batopilas to Munerachi, Cerocahui, Chihuahua City, Cusárare,(Copper Canyon Train, Pancho Villa Museum, Chihuahua Museum of History, Hotel at Divisadero - the continental divide, and French Film Crew members whom George O. Jackson, Jr. accompanied on this trip: Director Jean Mazel, Alexis Mazel and Bruno Beaufils), 1997
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115 Coahuila
Melchor Muzquiz, (On the road to Muzquiz, Museo de Muzquiz, Yolanda Elizondo Maltos and Dr. Jorge Charcourt, Curators) 1998
San Pedro de las Colonias 1998
Miscellaneous: Northern Mexico - on the road from Muzquiz to Durango to Chihuahua and finally to Hermosillo, Sonora. 1998
box folder
116 Edo. de México
Amecameca de Juarez,Edo. De México to Puebla (vistas de las Icctacihuatl y Popocatepetl) 1989, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2001
Chalma 1994, 1996
El Ahuehuete to Chalma 1997
Ixtapaluca, (Granja la Siberia) 1997
Malinalco 1994, 1997
San Felipe del Progresso 1994, 1997
San Pedro el Alto, (iglesia, mural) 1994
Santiago Tianguistenco, (mural) 1997
Teotihuaclan and Tulnancingo 1996, 1997
Tres Marias 1992
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117 Guanajuato
Celaya, (iglesia) 1998
Guanajuato, (Panteon y Museo de las Momias) 1994, 1996, 1997
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118 Guerrero
Acatlán 1990
Almonga 1992
Aquilpa 1994
Chilapa 1991
Chilpancingo de los Bravos, (manifestacion de protesta) 1994
Costa Chica 1992
Olinala, (vistas de los volcanes Popo y Icctacihuatl desde Olinala) 1994
Rio Mezcala 1994
Taxco 1994
Tixtla, (plaza en Tixtla) 1994
Tlapa de Comonfort 1994
Zitlala, (cerca de) 1994
box folder
119 Hidalgo
Apan, (plano topografico, hacienda en San Lorenzo) 1991
Barranca de Tolantongo, (on the way to Barbacoa Traditional) 1996
Candela 1994
Huasteca 1991, 1994
Huejutla de Reyes, (mercado, paintings of Idelfonso Maya) 1991, 1994, 1996
La Corrala, (Huasteca Hidalguense y Rio de Ecuatitla) 1991
Macuxtepetla, (Huasteca Hidalguense) 1991
Metepec 1993
Molango, (near Postetitla, Huasteca Hidalguense) 1991
San Miguel Regla, (las Parismas Basalticas) 1991
Tlanchinol 1993, 1994
Tulancingo, (cerca de) 1996
Xilitla, (las polas, Huasteca Hidalguense) 1991
Yahualica, (cerca de) 1991
Jalisco
Guadalajara 1996
Puerto Vallarta 1989
Talpa 1998
México, DF
Cuidad de México, (miscellaneous: Studio of Diego Rivera, La Quema de los Judas, Vista desde El Hotel Catedral, museums, murals) 1984-1997
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120 México, DF
Cuidad de México, (Zocálo) 1988-1991
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121 México, DF
Cuidad de México, (Zocálo) 1992-1994
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122 México, DF
Cuidad de México, (Zocálo) 2000-2001
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123 Michoacán
Capula 1997
Patzcuaro 1996
Playa Azul 1984-85
Sahuayo 1997
Santa Clara del Cobre 1998
Zirahuen, (laguna de) 1998
Nayarit
La Palmita 1999
Mesa del Nayar 1999
Mexcatitlan de Uribe 1998
San Blas y Las Islitas 1998
Santa Teresa, (Santa Teresa Miraflores) 1999
Nuevo Leon
Caydereta 1994
Lampazos de Naranjo 2001
box folder
124 Oaxaca
Chacahua 1996
Coixtlahuaca 1994
Jamiltepec 1994
Juquila 1994
Mitla, (palacio de) 1992
Mixtexca Alta 1991
Monte Alban 1992
Puerto Escondido 1996
San Bartolo Zoogocho 1996
San Jose Yucuita, (iglesia) n.d.
San Juan Guichicovi 1990
San Pedro Ixcatlan, (cerca de Tuxtepec) 1998
Santa Maria Zacatepec, (road to) 1991
Santiago Ixtayutla 1994
Tehuantepec 1990
Tututpec 1996
Tuxtepec y San Lucas Ojitlan 1998
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125 Puebla
Ahuacatlan 1992
Chiconcuautla, (rumbo a) 1994
Chietla, (vista de) 1996
Chignahaupan 1992
Coatzingo 1992
Huauchinango 1992, 1997
Pahuatlan del Valle 1996
San Felipe Rijo 1991
Yohualichan y Yancuitlalpan 1996
Zacatlán, (de las manzanas) 1997
Miscellaneous, (Sierra Norte de Puebla) 1997
Querétaro
Landa de Matamoras 1996
Quintana Roo
Bacalar, (Hotel La Laguna) 2000
Santa Gertrudis y Tihosuco 2000
San Luis Potosí
Huejutla de Reyes 1991, 1994
Real de Catorce 1990
Santa Maria Acapulco 1996
Xilitla, (casa de Edward James; Las Pozas, Huasteca Potosina) 1991
Xilitla y Huasteca Potosina 1991
box folder
126 Sonora
Alamos 1999
Bacerac 1999
Cananea 1999
Etchojoa, (Museo de Leonardito Valdez) 1999
Huasabas 1999
Huasabas to Bacerac, (landscapes) 1999
Huepac 1999
Moctezuma 1999
Unamichi 1999
Ures 1999
box folder
127 Tabasco
Comalcalco y Jalapa de Mendez 2000
Tlaxcala
Calpulalpan, (iglesia) 1991
Huamantla, (Hotel La Escondida, La Malinche) 1996
Terrenate 1996
Veracruz
Citlaltepetl, (El Pico de Orizaba) 1996
Coatzintla 1991
Cosamaloapan 1996
El Tajin 1996
Paplanta, (designs of the interior of kiosk in Plaza de Papantla) 1991
Postetitla, (vista desde Veracruz) 1997
Tlacotalpan 1993
Yucatán
Sotuta y Dzan 2000
box folder