The Benson Latin American Collection

Reminiscencias históricas of General Mariano Ruiz, 1926

Descriptive Summary

Creator Ruiz, Mariano, 1843-
Title Reminiscencias históricas escritas por el general Mariano Ruiz
Dates: 1926
Abstract Mexican General Mariano Ruiz's memoir of the French Intervention, the capture and execution of Maximilian, the American Princess Salm-Salm, and events that led to the Mexican Revolution.
Accession No. 2000-03
OCLC Record No. 70704514
Extent 3 inches
Language Spanish
Repository Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch

Mariano Ruiz was born 26 January 1843 in Texcoco, México. A career army officer, Ruiz rose to the rank of division general and commander of the 1st Infantry Brigade, West Division. He served as a federal deputy from 1886 to 1912, and appointed governor of Nayarit from 1904-1911. Mariano Ruiz died on 1 December 1932.

Scope and Contents Note

The Reminiscencias contains 133 folios of text and 74 plates that include photographs, portraits, and illustrations of Maximilian, republican and imperial generals, political dignitaries, battle scenes, and Princess Salm-Salm (née Agnes Le Clerq Joy). In his memoir Ruiz recounts the military maneuvers throughout Mexico that led to the arrest and tragic end to Emperor Maximilian and to the events that led to the twentieth-century revolution. The collection also includes newspaper clippings of Princess Salm-Salm's American visit in 1899 that corroborate Ruiz's account.


Access Restrictions


Use Restrictions

Standard copyright restrictions apply. Copying is limited due to preservation concerns.

Index Terms

The Memoirs of General Mariano Ruiz classified under the following Subject Headings in the University of Texas Libraries catalog:
Ruiz, Mariano, 1843- --Archives
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1832-1867
Salm-Salm, Agnes Elisabeth Winona Leclerq Joy, Prinzessin zu, 1840-1912
Mexico--History--European intervention, 1861-1867--Sources

Related Material

Materials related to the French Intervention can also be found in the Benson's Genaro García Collection.

Administrative Information

Provenance Note

One of two extant copies of the memoirs, this was inscribed in 1928 to Ruiz's "honorable friend" Edmund Steele Joy. The manuscript was discovered in a Philadelphia attic by Joy's great-nieces Elizabeth Joy Oberdorf and Edith Joy King.

Preferred Citation

Cite as: Memoirs of General Mariano Ruiz, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas Libraries, the University of Texas at Austin.

Box and Folder Inventory


Reminiscencias históricas escritas por el general Mariano Ruiz, veterano de 1862, el día 15 de septiembre de 1926

1 Reminiscencias históricas
The text contains, among other information, the following:
Dedicatory of the manuscript to Don Plutarco Elías Calles, Presidente de la República, 15 September 1926.
Dedicatory of the manuscript to Señor General Alvaro Obregón.
Essay about Napolion Bonaparte addressed to Señor Presidente.
Report of political and military facts that vocer the period of the French Intervention, 1862-1867. Special coverage of military campaigns of the Ejército del Norte and Ejército de Oriente as well as the Sitio de Querétaro, and the court-martial and execution of Maximilian. General Escobedo and Benito Juarez are mentioned as sources. A military document reported by General Antonio Badarrama to General Mariano Escobero is fully transcribed on leaves 32 and 33 bis. 154 leaves.
Historical anecdote involving Manuel Lozada, aka the "Tiger of Alica," and the Conde of Athum. 11 leaves.
Historical anecdote involving an honorable old lady from Monterrey (name not provided) during the American Navy landing and seizure of Veracruz, 1913-1914. 4 leaves.
Historical reminiscences of the honorable lady Mrs. Carmen Romero Rubio viuda de Díaz (wife of Porfirio Díaz).
Transcription of letter by Victor Hugo to Porfirio Díaz, 20 June 1867. 3 leaves.
Photographs and Prints
A number of photographs or printed copies of portraits and paintings are included in the memoirs. These include the following:
1. Plutarco Elias Calles
2. Alvaro Obregón
3. Napoleon Bonaparte
4. Napoleon III, Emperor of France
5. President Benito Juárez
6. Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, Minister of Foreign Relations
7. General Ignacio Mejía, Minister of War and Marine
8. Authors of the Constitution of 1857
9. Battle of Calpulalpam, 1860
10. General Manuel Doblado, representative of the Mexican government in the conference with England, France, and Spain, 1862
11. General Juan Prim, representative of Spain and Commander-in-Chief of tripartite forces, 1862
12. Vice-Admiral Jurien de la Graviere, French representative, 1862
13. Conde Lorencez, Division General of French forces defeated at Pueble, 5 May 1862
14. Brigadier General Félix Díaz
15. Monument to the memory of Mexican patriots who died, El Fortín, Veracruz, 19 April 1862
16. Division General Ignacio Zaragoza
17. Battle of Puebla, 5 May 1862
18. Division General Porfirio Díaz
19. Porfirio Díaz routing French invaders at the Cerro de Amalucán
20. Division General Miguel Negrete, 1862
21. Division General Felipe Berriozabal
22. Division General Florencio Antillon
23. Division General Jesús González Ortega
24. Division General U. Forey (Lorencez's successor)
25. Bazaine, Marshal of the French forces, responsible for the decree of 3 October 1865, issued by Maximilian in 1867
26. Brigadier General Pedro J. Méndez, Tamaulipas, d. 13 February 1866
27. Mexican commissioners who offered Archduke Maximilian of Austria the Mexican throne, 3 October 1863
28. General José López Uraga of the Central Army, defected to the French in 1863
29. Pope Pius IX's meeting with Maximilian and Carlotta Amalia of Belgium to receive his blessing before assuming the Mexican crown, 1864
30. Maximilian, killed at Querétaro, 19 June 1867
31. Carlotta
32. Maximilian meeting Srta. Guadalupe Martínez when his disguise was uncovered
33. Assault on the plaza of Puebla, 2 April 1867
34. Division General Mariano Escobedo
35. Division General Ramón Corona
36. Brigadier General Vicente Riva Palacio
37. Brigadier General Sóstenes Rocha
38. Brigadier General Nicolas Regules
39. Brigadier General Mariano Escobedo
40. Historic map of Querétaro
41. Division General Francisco A. Velez
42. Imperial General Leonardo Márquez, who escaped to Cuba
43. Maximilian's surrender to General Mariano Escobedo, Cerro de las Campana, 15 May 1867
44. Coronel Carlos Fuero
45. Imperial General Severo del Castillo
46. Imperial General Miguel Miramón
47. Imperial General Tomás Mejía
48. Imperial General Ramón Méndez
49. Imperial Coronel Miguel López
50. Princess Salm-Salm pleading before Juárez in San Luis Potosí
51. Military Council (court-martial) held at the Teatro Iturbide, Querétaro, 13 June 1867
52. Maximilian and his defense attorneys, 13 June 1867
53. Maximilian's farewell to Father Ficher, 19 June 1867
54. Execution of Maximilian, Miramón, and Mejía, 19 June 1867
55. Embalmed body of Maximilian, Querétaro, 20 June 1867
56. Funeral services for Maximilian, Cathedral of Vienna, November 1867
57. Burial crypt of Maximilian, Imperial Chapel at Vienna, 22 June 1867
58. Baron de Magnus, who was commissioned by Maximilian t escort his body to Vienna in the company of the Prince and Princess of Salm-Salm and the Admiral Tejetob, 1867
59. Drawing of Princess Salm-Salm, 1867
60. Mariano Ruiz, teniente de Estado Mayor, head of escort for Maximilian's body to Puebla, October 1867
61. General Santiago Vidaurri, governor of Nuevo León, who betrayed President Juárez, Monterrey, 1862
62. General Tomas d'Horan who betrayed the country by joining the French in 1862
63. General Mariano Escobedo, Commander-in-chief of the Army of the North. Mariano Ruiz was sub-teniente in the republican forces during Maximilian's reign, 1864-1867, and Jefe Superior until 1876
64. Conde de Athon, aid-de-camp of Maximilian, 1865
65. Manuel Lozada, "El Tigre de Alica," in the uniform of General de Division which was given to him by Maximilian, 1865
66. Manuel Lozada killed by a firing squad, Tepic, 5 June 1873
67. Sra. Carmen R.R. viuda de Díaz, 1926
68. General Porfirio Díaz, President of the Republic, reviewing troops at Guarnición de México at Llanos de San Lázaro on the anniversary of 1867, 2 April 1907
69. General Porfirio Díaz when he escaped by boat, June 1876. Mariano Ruiz was involved in the adventure to capture Díaz
70. General P. Díaz when he renounced the presidency, 10 April 1911
71. General Porfirio Díaz and U.S. President William Howard Taft, Ciudad Juárez, November 1910
72. José I. Limantour, ministro de Hacienda y Crédito Público, 1910
73. General Mariano Ruiz and Mr. Ingram, vice-president and general manager, Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, at station named in Ruiz's honor [Chihuahua?]. This was at the time that Ruiz was involved in uncovering the Taft's machinations against Profirio Díaz, 1910
74. General de División Mariano Ruiz, 1926



Dr.37 Princess Salm-Salm
1. "A tragic page of Amrican history," The New Voice, New York, 22 April 1898
2. "Real American princess visiting in Cleveland,"
3. "How Abraham Lincoln was Hobsonized," New York Herald, 11 June 1904
4. "Princess Agnes Salm-Salm in Chicago," N.s., N.d.
5. "At the White House," The Evening Star, 17 April 1899
5. Various, 1899
Edmund L. Joy
Picture prints (2)