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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Descriptive Summary

Biographical Note

Scope and Contents

Organization

Index Terms

Related Material

Administrative Information

Description of Series

I. Archives

II. Manuscripts (G469)

The Benson Latin American Collection

Jesús González Ortega:

An Inventory of His Collection at the Benson Latin American Collection



Descriptive Summary

Creator González Ortega, Jesús, 1822-1881.
Title Jesús González Ortega Collection
Dates: 1851-1881
Dates: 1860-1861
Abstract Correspondence and other documents associated with Jesús González Ortega, Mexican military and political leader, pertaining chiefly to military and political affairs during the War of the Reform and the French Intervention.
OCLC Record No. 29747462
Extent 14 inches
Language Spanish or Castilian.
Repository Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Note

Military and political leader. Born 1822 on the Hacienda de San Mateo, near Teúl, Zacatecas; died 1881 in Saltillo. Served as jefe político de Tlaltenango (1855) and Fresnillo (1857), and Diputado in the Congreso Zacatecano (1857). Designated by the legislature as governor of the state of Zacatecas upon the resignation of the previous governor (1858). Organized troops and defended Zacatecas from attacks by the conservative forces of Joaquín Miramón and Adrián Woll.

Having been functioning successfully as a military commander without official rank, González Ortega was named General de Brigada in June 1860 but declined the appointment, preferring to continue in his unofficial capacity. On August 10, 1860, González Ortega defeated MiramónÕs forces at Silao and was named hero of the state of Zacatecas. He again was offered a commission as General de Brigada, but declined once more. He assumed Santos DegolladoÕs command when Degollado was relieved by President Benito Juárez. On December 22, 1860, González Ortega defeated Miramón, Leonardo Márquez, and others in the battle of Calpulalpan, ending the Guerra de los Tres Años.

González was named Ministro de Guerra by Juárez on January 1, 1861; he renounced this office on January 17 but continued to serve until April 6, 1861, when he renounced the post a second time. He was elected president of the Supreme Court, in effect giving him the vice-presidency of the Republic, and was sworn in on August 20, 1861.

Upon the death of General Ignacio Zaragoza, González Ortega was given his command and participated in the defense of Puebla in the spring of 1863. A year later, he was ordered by Juárez to Saltillo to fight the French. On December 30, 1864, Juárez granted permission to González Ortega to take temporary leave from his duties, upon which he went to the United States to raise support and supplies for the army. Juárez decreed on November 8, 1865, that González Ortega was in dereliction of his duties for having abandoned the country and his troops without the permission of congress and the president, and instituted proceedings against him. González Ortega was detained by U.S. officials on November 3, 1866, when he attempted to return to Mexico. He was released and entered Mexico, but was arrested upon the order of the acting governor of Zacatecas and imprisoned in Saltillo on January 8, 1867. In April he was transferred to the Prision del Obispado in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. During his incarceration he was elected to Congress but declined to serve. After his release from prison on August 1, 1868, González Ortega retired to private life in Saltillo.

On July 11, 1869, he was elected diputado proprietario from Tlaltenango to the Congreso de la Unión. He was named enviado extraordinario y ministro plenipotenciario to Spain on March 11, 1874. On January 6, 1881, President Manuel González conferred upon him the rank of general. González Ortega died in Saltillo on February 28, 1881.

Chronology
1822 Born on the Hacienda de San Mateo, near Teúl, Zacatecas (Porrúa). Grandson, José González Ortega, says he was born January 19, 1822.
1824 Baptismal record (in Collection) states that he was born October [9], 1824
29 Aug 1855 Gefe politico de Distrito (Tlaltenango)
(14 May) 1857 Gefe politico de Fresnillo
1858 diputado al Congreso Zacatecano
12 Sep 1858 first item addressing him as Gobernador del Estado de Zacatecas
Oct 1858 designated by legislature Gobernador del Estado de Zacatecas luego de la renuncia del Gobernador
Jan 1859 organiza tropas para defensa y derrota a unas tropas conservadoras
16 Jan 1859 primer combate contra los reaccionarios -- Joaquín Miramón, en los afueros de Zacatecas; defendió la ciudad contra del general Patrón
May 1859 regresó a Zacatecas; continuó levantando tropas; derrotó al General Woll, que atacaba Zacatecas.
Jan 1860 recuperó Zacatecas de los conservadores; JGO salió a atacar ciudad de San Luis Potosí, los conservadores ocuparon Zacatecas. JGO tomó Aguascalientes, regresó a Zacatecas y retomó la ciudad.
7 June 1860 “Comandante Militar de Zacatecas, San Luis, Aguascalientes y Durango” y le envió despacho de general de brigada. JGO devolvió el despacho, agraderó el honor, pero quiso continuar como militar improvisado
15 June 1860 derrotó a Ramírez en Peñuelas
20 July 1860 JGO addressed as “en Jefe de las Fuerzas Constitucionalistas de Zacatecas” by Degollado
9-10 Aug 1860 JGO, con 3 divisiones, una de ellas bajo D. Ignacio Zaragoza, se enfrenta a Miramón en Silao; lo derrotó.
10 Aug 1860 Battle of Silao; made benemérito del Estado de Zacatecas; “Degollado comunicó a Veracruz, al por que la victoria de Silao, la necesidad de que su autor tuviese un lugar en el escalafón guerrero. A ello contestó D. Benito expidiendo patente de general de brigada en favor de JGO. Ese despacho está fechado en 22 de agosto ded 1860, y fue enviado a Ortega con oficio del Ministro de la Guerra fechado el 10 de octubre. De allí resulta que el 17 de agosto en que JGO comandaba como General en Jefe del Ejército de Operaciones, aún no tenía grado militar.”
17 Oct 1860 named General de Brigada by Degollado; declined
después de agosto 1860 JGO sale hacia México D.F. pero antes participó sitio y toma de Guadalajara con Ignacio Zaragoza; Juárez le quitó el titulo de General a Degollado y le montaron juicio. Entregó el cargo a JGO.
22 Dec 1860 Batalla de Calpulalpan; derrotó a Miramón, Márquez, Negrete, etc. Concluyó la Guerra de los Tres Años. Para el 25 de diciembre JGO ya había tomado México D.F. con su ejército.
1 Jan 1861 entregó a México; Juárez llega a México D.F.; nombró a JGO Ministro de la Guerra, que renunció primera vez 17 January 1861.
6 Apr [1861] renunció al puesto [de Ministro de Guerra] por diferencias con el Presidente [Juárez]; junto con Ocampo, de la Llave, y otros.
9 May 1861 el Congreso declaró legalmente electo a Juárez como Pres. Constitucional
1 July 1861 Congreso lo eligió Presidente de la Suprema Corte, lo que le daba la Vice-Presidencia de la República
2 July 1861 salió en persecución de Márquez.
1861 derrotó a Márquez
Aug 1861 batieron a Márquez en Jalatlaco; escapó
20 Aug 1861 JGO rindió protesta (was sworn in) como Pres. Suprema Corte ante el Congreso
23 Aug 1861 Juárez ordena a JGO salga a batir a los conservadores Mejía, etc. Aceptó cargo de General en Jefe, “pidió licencia al Congreso para separarse de la Presidencia de la Suprema Corte mientras durase la compaña...” Pero no le pagaron salario a los soldados, ni le dieron comida, municiones, etc. JGO renunció? General en Jefe del Cuerpo de Ejército de Operaciones.
ca. 11 Sep 1861 Juárez rechazó las indicacciones de JGO y le aceptó su renuncia. Parece que el Gobierno le quería quitar la Guardia Nacional a los Estados y fundirlos en un ejército? JGO llegó a Zacatecas con los soldados y se dedicó a gobernar el estado. D. Ignacio Zaragosa General en Jefe de fuerzas destinadas a combatir los franceses. Se retiró a Puebla para aguarda el ataque.
5 May 1862 Batalla; Zaragoza, Negrete, Porfirio Díaz, Berriozábal, La Madrid, Méndez. JGO derrotado cerca de Orizaba. Al morir Zaragoza, JGO fue designado para substituirlo, y recibió ordenes para resistir en Puebla. Á la muerte de Zaragoza y el desembarco de Forey con sus tropas, logró que se le nombrara Jefe del Ejército de Oriente.
16 March 1863 Franceses se acercan a Puebla
17 May 1863 JGO se rinde a Gral. Forey; sitio duró 62 dias; defensa de Puebla durante 62 dias
20 May 1863 jefes y oficiales_____salieron de Puebla hacia Veracruz; varios de ellos se escaparon, incluyendo JGO.
ca. 20 May 1863 Juárez abandona la capital con el gobierno; la Suprema Corte dejó de existir cuando Juárez abandonó la capital y el govierno se retiró a otros sitios. Juárez divided el ejército en 5 partes, una de ellas comandada por JGO.
Nov 1863 para noviembre 1863 JGO parece estar como Gobernador de Zacatecas.
186? went to United States. Fue acusado de abandonar el territoria nacional sin consentimiento del Congreso, y el mando de sus tropas sin permiso del Presidente. Se le sujetó a proceso.
3 Nov 1866 Cuando quiso entrar a México, lo detuvo la policía de E.U.
26 Dec 1866 Logra regresar a México. Lanzó un manifiesto contra el Presidente. Jailed in Monterey, Nuevo Leon, by Gov. of Zacatecas. Elected to Congress although incarcerated, but declined to serve.
15 Sep 1867 wrote letter from “Prision del Obispado, Monterey.” retired to Saltillo upon release from prison; refused the post of Governor of Zacatecas.
11 July 1869 elected Diputado Proprietario al Congreso de la Unión, from Tlaltenango
11 mar 1874 named enviado extraordinario y ministro plenipotenciario de los E.U. mexicanos, cerca del Gobno de España
6 Jan 1881 Presidente Manuel González le reconoció el grado de General
28 Feb 1881 died in Saltillo

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Scope and Contents

Correspondence, literary productions, financial documents, lists, and printed material (bulk dates 1860-1861). Correspondence pertains mostly to military matters during the War of the Reform and the French Intervention. Correspondents include Ignacio Comonfort, Santos Degollado, Manuel Doblado, Benito Juárez, Guillermo Prieto, and Ignacio Zaragoza. Literary productions include two essays by Guillermo Prieto, a report of the Battle of Silao, speeches (including González OrtegaÕs eulogy), plans of operation and attack, poetry, and excerpts from periodicals. Lists and financial documents concern military matters from 1856-1864; some items in these series are undated. Certifications, orders and instructions, circulars, manifestos, and decrees from 1857-1867 relate to military and political affairs during that period.

The materials are in Spanish.

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Organization

Organized into two subgroups: Archives and Manuscripts. Subgroups are further divided into series by format of material.

Arrangement

Chronological arrangement within series.

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Index Terms

Subjects
González Ortega, Jesús, 1822-1881--Archives.
Mexico--History--1821-1861--Sources.
Mexico--History--European intervention, 1861-1867--Sources.
Mexico--History, Military--Sources.
Mexico--Politics and government--1821-1861--Sources.
Mexico--Politics and government--1861-1867--Sources.
Zacatecas (Mexico : State)--History--Sources.
Other Authors
Comonfort, Ignacio, 1812-1863
Degollado, Santos, 1811-1861
Doblado, Manuel, 1818-1865.
Juarez, Benito, 1806-1872
Prieto, Guillermo, 1818-1897
Zaragoza, Ignacio, 1829-1862

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Related Material

García, Genaro, 1867-1920.Genaro García Collection, 15-- - 1920?, Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin.

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Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Jesús González Ortega Collection, 1851-1881, Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin

Acquisitions Information

The Jesús González Ortega Collection forms part of the Genaro García Collection, which was purchased by the University of Texas in 1921 from the heirs of Genaro García.

Processing Information

The Jesús González Ortega Collection was organized into Archives and Manuscripts subgroups by earlier library staff. Series were created by the staff of the Mexican Archives Project, which completed processing of the collection in December 1993

Finding aid initially prepared by the Mexican Archives Project, January 24, 1995.

Alternate Form Available

The materials are also available on microfilm.

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Other Finding Aids

The following guide is available in the Benson Latin American Collection Rare Books Reference: Castañeda, Carlos Eduardo, 1896-1958.Guide to the Latin American Manuscripts in the University of Texas Library.
Cambridge, Mass. :
Harvard University Press,
1939.

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Subgroups and Series

 

I. Archives

1. Series, Correspondence, 1851-1875.
2. Series, Literary productions, Includes a report of the Battle of Silao. 1856-1861.
3. Series, Financial documents, 1860-1864.
4. Series, Certifications and other official documents, 1857-1866.
5. Series, Lists, 1860-1864.
6. Series, Printed material, 1860-1861.

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II. Manuscripts (G469)

1. Series, Correspondence, 1851-1868.
2. Series, Literary productions, 1860-1872.
3. Series, Correspondence and literary productions related to González OrtegaÕs death, 1881.
4. Series, Orders and instructions, 1858-[1864].
5. Series, Circulars, manifestos, decrees, etc., 1860-1867.
6. Series, Financial documents, 1860-1861.
7. Series, Lists and receipts, 1856-1861.
8. Series, Legal documents, 1859 and 1868.
9. Series, Baptismal record, 1907.

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