A Guide to the Joseph B. Kruskal Papers,
19262003





Creator: 
Kruskal, Joseph B., 19282010 

Title: 
Joseph B. Kruskal
Papers 

Dates: 
19262003 

Abstract: 
The Joseph B. Kruskal Papers, 19262003, document Kruskal’s professional career as a
mathematician and statistician. Materials include correspondence, notes, printed material, film, and other material. 

Accession No.: 
2012142 

Extent: 
9 ft., 6 in. 

Language: 
Materials are primarily written in English, with small amounts of
material in French, German, Italian, and Czech. 

Repository: 
Dolph Briscoe Center for American
History, The University of Texas at
Austin 
Joseph B. Kruskal, Jr. was born in 1928, in New York City. He completed his BS (1948) and MS (1949), both
in mathematics, at the University of Chicago. He earned his PhD in mathematics at Princeton University in 1954. During the 1950s, Kruskal
also worked in logistical research for the US Office of Naval Research, first at George Washington University’s Logistical Research
Project (19501953), then at Princeton’s Analytical Research Project (19541956). He then taught for three years at the University of
Wisconsin  Madison and the University of Wisconsin  Ann Arbor. In 1959, he left teaching to conduct research at Bell Laboratories, in
Murray Hill, New Jersey, where he would work for the rest of his career. He officially retired from Bell Labs in 1993, but continued to
conduct research there for several years after.
Although trained in pure mathematics, Kruskal’s work at Bell Labs encouraged him to explore statistics, computer science, and various
other areas of applied mathematics. His major areas of research and publication included: combinatorics; wellpartialordered sets
(the subject of his doctoral dissertation); multidimensional scaling (MDS) and its applications to various fields, particularly
linguistics; psychometrics; and sequence comparison. While at Bell Labs, he worked on TAT8, the first transatlantic fiber optic
cable system. In addition to his research, Kruskal lectured frequently, communicated with other scholars about statistical
methodology, and advised graduate students from around the world. He was the second president of the Classification Society of North
America (19721973) and president of the Psychometric Society (19741975). He was named a Fellow of the American Statistical
Association in 1971 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1982.
Kruskal’s two older brothers, William and Martin, were also wellknown mathematicians. Kruskal married his wife, Rachel Solomon, in
1953, and the couple had two children, Joyce and Benjamin. He passed away in 2010.
The Joseph B. Kruskal Papers, 19262003, document Kruskal’s professional career as a mathematician and statistician. Materials include correspondence, notes, printed material, film, and other material.
The most extensive portion of the collection is the Research Files (19262003). This series is divided into topical files, files by person (including collaborators and those whose work Kruskal was studying), linguistics, and documentation of computer programs Kruskal developed at Bell Labs. Correspondence, reprints, drafts, and notes are included in this series.
The records of his Seminars and Presentations (19531997) include notes, transparency slides, and other materials from talks he gave at Bell Labs, conferences, and universities. The many transparency slides, or “viewgraphs,” were photocopied for preservation purposes and the originals discarded.
Kruskal’s Correspondence (19502001), arranged chronologically, documents his professional life, communications with other researchers in various fields, and the operations of Bell Labs. Included are both incoming and outgoing correspondence. Of particular note are several letters to and from Paul Erdős, dated 1953, 1954, and 1960.
His Education and Teaching files (19481958) include student materials, particularly class notes, and materials from his short teaching career, including handouts, quizzes, and tests. His class notes from the University of Chicago and Princeton University include notes from lectures by S. Bochner, N. Steenrod, and R. Fox, among others.
The Organizational files (19701981) document his work with professional organizations, namely the Classification Society (North America Branch), Psychometric Society, Committee of Concerned Scientists, as well as a workshop he helped run on multidimensional scaling techniques.
Finally, the collection includes four films (1968, undated), in various formats.
Forms part of the Archives of American Mathematics
Access Restrictions
Unrestricted access.
Use Restrictions
The bulk of these records are stored remotely. Advance notice required for retrieval. Contact repository for retrieval.







Subjects (Persons) 


Kruskal, Joseph B., 19282010 


Dyen, Isidore, 19132008 


Rado, Richard, 19061989 

Subjects (Organizations) 


Bell Labs Innovations 


Princeton University 


University of Michigan 


University of WisconsinMadison 

Subjects 


Combinatorial analysis 


Lexicostatistics 


Multidimensional scaling 


Psychometrics 
Joseph B. Kruskal Papers, 19262003, Archives of American Mathematics, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at
Austin.
This collection was processed by Elliot Williams, September 2012.
Detailed Description of the Papers















Research Files 



Topical 
box 
2012142/1 (18083915) 



BuMed [Bureau of Medicine and Surgery],
1951 




ABEL, 1951 




Well partial ordering and Vazsonyi’s Conjecture, 1952, 1954 




Wellpartialorder and Rado’s Conjecture, 19541955 




WPO [Wellpartialorder] – Rado Paper, 1957 




Talk on WPO [Wellpartialorder], 1959 




Assorted WPO [Wellpartialorder] stuff, summer 1959, 1959 




Tree theorem, undated 




Paper on WQO and V.'s [Vazsonyi's] conjecture, 1957 




WQO [Wellquasiordering], undated 




WQO [Wellquasiordering] and Rado's conjecture, 1959?, circa 1959 




W.Q.O. [Wellquasiordering], 19371970 




Induced represetnations, Mackey..., circa 1951 




Whitney's theorem, 1954 




Papers of mine: Rhine's E.S.P.; Divorce stat. [statistics], undated 
box 
2012142/2 (18083926) 



Random walk on triangular grid, undated 




Some work on words over krelation spaces, undated 




Monotonicity records, 1955, undated 




Misc. monot. [monotonicity] work, 1950 




Copies of "Monotonic Subsequences," 1953 




Integrality paper, with Alan Hoffman, 19551956 




Second Hoffman paper, 19551956 




Polya's theorem, 1956 




Spanning subtree and travelling salesman paper, 1956 




Shortest spanning subtree, 19381985 




Free calc. paper: Early or auxiliary material, undated 




Free calc. paper: Active, undated 




Talk on free calculus, undated 




Group theory calculation on the IBM 650, 1957 




Knots  Numerical computations, undated 




S0RT, 1963 




Nonmetric multidimensional scaling, 1964 
box 
2012142/3 (18083904) 



Work on monotonic regressions..., circa 1965 




Monotone treefitting, 1973 




Transformations of data (Encyclopedia article), 1968 




Transformations of data, International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, 19661968 




Singular value decomposition, 1970 




Differentiation of the singular value decomposition, undated 




Some improvements in parametric mapping, 1973 




Locally linear and locally isometric mapping, 1975 




Encyclopedia of Statistics article on MDS, 1977 




Bilinear methods, 1978 




Letter to Science re credit for tomography,
19791980 




Tomography paper with Shepp,
1979 




Some leastsquares theorems...,
1978 




An elegant new/old approach to estimating path models...,
1979 




3way stuff,
1977, 1983, undated 




2x2x2 paper,
19831985 




2x2x2,
1985, 1987 




3way ranks papers on,
19771981 
box 
2012142/4 (18083777) 



Max rank (3, 3, 3)=5,
1977, 1983, 1991 




3way arrays, background work,
19821983 




Threeway array,
19831991 




3way, Rome meeting, current work,
undated 




Miscellaneous work on multimode data,
19341940, undated 




3way arrays: Spaces of matrices...,
19761984 




Threeway: Papers to read,
1984 




Threeway: Misc. papers read,
19801986 




3way literature,
1977, 19801984 




Paper for Current Contents,
19771979 




A trigraph cipher with a short key...,
1984 
box 
2012142/5 (18083948) 



Trigraph code,
1984 




Designing network diagrams,
undated 




Cocitations and the geography of a scientific specialty,
undated 




Sankoff and Kruskall, Fast algorithms to determine RNA...,
undated 




Rome meeting, TM1: Rank, decomposition...,
1988 




Rome meeting, TM2: Kruskal, Harshman, and Lundy,
1988 




Rome proceedings, Paper 1: Rank, decomposition...,
1988 




Rome proceedings, Paper 2: By Kruskal, Harshman, and Lundy,
1988 




Rome meeting, Multiway '88, viewgraphs,
1988 




TAT8 Memo,
1987 




Nonlinear temperature correction for TAT8...,
1987 




Technometrics paper, TAT8,
19881989 




Kruskal and Greenberg, Flexible way of counting...,
1986 




Kruskal and Cox, Similarity matching,
1989 




With Cox, TM2, Highaccuracy subpixel registration,
1988 




Robotics paper with Cox, TM1,
1988 




Laser paper,
1990 




Cox and Kruskal, Paper 4, Matching an image...,
1991 




Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,
undated 
box 
2012142/6 (18083959) 



Clustering of stars,
1997 




Other papers [1 of 2],
19711977 




Other papers [2 of 2],
1969, 1976, 1984, 1988, undated 



By Person 
box 
2012142/6 (18083959) 



Akkucuk, Ulas,
2003 




Anderson, Norman,
1969, 19751978 




Aumann, Robert,
1957 




Boruvka, O.,
19261956 




Brockett, Roger W.,
19751976 




Cane, Violet,
undated 




Carroll, J. Douglas,
1988 




CavalliSforza, L.L.,
1980, 1993 




De Leeuw, Jan,
19701976 
box 
2012142/7 (18083937) 



Dobkin, David: 3way arrays,
19761984 




Eckhoff and Wegner,
1973 




Edwards, Jack,
1968, 1975 




Franc, Alain,
19881991 




Graham, R.L.,
19821983 




Harshman, Richard,
19921993, undated 




Katona, Gyula,
19691976 




Kronenberg, P.,
1996 




Kunzl, HansPeter,
1997, undated 




Lagarias, Jeff (Math, Bell Labs),
1980 




Lautemann, Clemens,
19791980, 1983 




Laver, Richard,
19701976 




Lescanne, Pierre,
1991, undated 




Levenbach, George (Archaeology),
1976 




Lumelsky, V.,
1976, 1980 




Mayberry, John P. (Jim),
1967, 1976 




Puel, Laurence: JSC Paper,
19861988 
box 
2012142/8 (18083835) 



Puel, Laurence: JSC Paper, Report 3,
1988 




Rado, Richard,
19541961 




Rocci, Roberto,
19911993 




Rosenberg, S.,
1972, 1980, undated 




Savage, L.J.,
19611971 




Schmidt, Diana,
1978 




Schroeder, Manfred,
1965 




Seymour, Paul,
1982 




Shepard, Roger,
19621988 




ten Berge, Jos,
19881997 




Tucker, Ledyard,
1965, 1972 




Van Leeuwen, Jan,
1976 




Vyssotsky,
1959 




Williams, J. (Writing style),
1981 



Linguistics 
box 
2012142/9 (18083846) 



Dyen, Isidore [1 of 2],
1974, 19921998 




Dyen, Isidore [2 of 2],
19921998 




Linguistics, particularly box diagrams,
undated 




Explanation of MDS and of Swadesh method,
undated 




Lecture at Hoenigswald's meeting,
undated 




Mathematical models of glottochronology,
undated 




Viewgraphs,
undated 




Isidore Dyen, Lexicostatistics,
19691972 




Black, Paul,
19731975 




Dobson, A.J., Australia,
19711978 




Hoenigswald, Henry M.,
1974 




Labov, William,
19731974 




Historical linguistics reprints, miscellaneous authors,
19731974 




Oswalt, Robert,
19731975, 1979 




Oswalt, Basic data, etc. on remote linguistics relationships,
19791980 




Linguistic paper [Lexicostatistical Model],
1971 




MDS of languages, viewgraphs,
1973, undated 




Fig. 1 for IE [IndoEuropean] Paper,
1974 




DyenKruskalBlack box diagram [Preservation photocopies of original oversize wrappings],
undated 
shelf 
2.325/AA 



DyenKruskalBlack box diagram ["1973 version  Original"],
1973 




DyenKruskalBlack box diagram ["1974 version"],
1974 




DyenKruskalBlack box diagram ["No group names, Two character labels"],
undated 



Computer Programs 
box 
2012142/10 (18083857) 



Documents for Use with the Multidimensional Scaling Package,
circa 1974 




How to Use KYST2A,
circa 19821983 




MDS2,
circa 1984 




Icicle Plot Package for Hierarchical Clustering,
1985 




Designing Network Diagrams,
undated 




MDS [correspondence],
1992 















Seminars and Presentations 
box 
2012142/11 (18083868) 


Computing machines,
circa 1953 



Talk on 371 MalayoPolynesian languages,
1969 



Talk on bimodality,
1971 



Talk at the Acoustical Society,
1971 



Columbia, Talk on scaling,
1971 



Variable rules in language,
1972 



Rapid lexical change talk,
1973 



Yale linguistics talk,
1974 



Multilinear leastsquares talk,
undated 



Berkeley linguistics talk,
1974 



Talk on designing network diagrams,
undated 



Teachers College lecture, MDS,
1978 



IRIA MDS lecture,
1979 



IRIA path models lecture,
1979 



Rietz lecture,
1979 



Talk at Classification Society meeting, Boulder,
1980 



Lecture on secondary structure of RNA,
1981 



Sequence comparison Bell Labs lecture,
1981 



Harshman, Kruskal, Lundy talk, St. Johns,
1981 



AMS short course, Multilinear models (Viewgraphs),
1982 
box 
2012142/12 (18083960) 


Talk at Courant Institute, "Monotonic sequences...,"
1982 



Michigan math prize competition [viewgraphs],
1982 



Talk on timewarping, ASA meeting, Cincinnati,
1982 



Viewgraphs,
undated 



NJMAA meeting, Sequence comparison,
1982 



Georgia lecture, Sequence comparison,
1982 



Talk as ASA meeting, Toronto,
1983 



ASA Delaware chapter, Sequence comparison,
1983 



3way arrays talk, Bell Labs,
1983 



PARAFAC talk, Psychometric meeting,
1983 



University of Virginia lecture, Sequence comparison,
1984 



Anthology of Algorithms, viewgraphs and figures,
undated 



Timewarping chapter, viewgraphs,
undated 



Overview of sequence comparison chapter, viewgraphs,
undated 



Fast algorithms to predict RNA secondary secture, some viewgraphs,
undated 



Biomedical meeting, NIH,
1984 



Clusters of languages: Checking the variance,
1987 



TAT8 trilevel talk,
undated 



3level talk and new talk (Joint work with Cox),
1988 



SISFAC talk, Psychometric meeting,
1988 



Tampa talk [Work with Cox],
1989 



Trip to Columbia [Matching noisy images],
undated 



Trilinear analysis, Talk for Burdick's group at Duke,
undated 



Trip to [illegible], Handouts,
1991 



AARHUS talk,
1997 



How to talk mathematics,
undated 
box 
2012142/13 (18083824) 


Viewgraphs [Assorted],
undated 



Notes: 




Computation and complicated models...,
1964 




Scorefree analysis on nonmetric data,
1964 




Analysis of factorial experiments...,
1964 




Talk given to the assorted statisticians of Cambridge,
1965 




Talk on perception of Morse code...,
1965 




Multidimensional scaling, other models...,
1965 




Talk on Morse code,
1965 




Talk on E.S.S. dictionary and coordinates approach,
1965 




Talk for Math. Association of America,
1966 




Symposium on "The Human Use of Computing Machines,"
1966 




Yale Psychology Colloquium 2,
1966 




Clusteriness index talk,
1969 




Talk for Statistics Day, Bell Labs,
1973 
box 
2012142/14 (18083879) 



Brock linguistics talk,
1974 




Zürich lecture on 3way decomposition,
1975 




Leastsquares theorem,
1977 




Tomography talk,
1977 




Teachers' College taped lecture on MDS,
1978 




Talk before London seminar,
circa 1984 




MDS Workshop, Special problems talk,
undated 




MDS Workshop, Statistical aspects talk,
undated 




Second International Symposium on Multivariate Analysis,
undated 




Suppose you have this data...,
undated 




3 MDS lectures,
undated 




Lecture delivered in French at Marseilles,
undated 
box 
2012142/15 (18084066) 



Talk at Madison...,
undated 




Multidimensional scaling and clustering,
undated 




Talk on rank of 3way arrays,
undated 




Isomorphism problem,
undated 




Some novel uses of geometry...,
undated 




Talk on the analysis of variance,
undated 















Correspondence 



Correspondence: 
box 
2012142/15 (18084066) 



1953 and before,
19501953 




1954 




1955 




1956 




Circa 5758,
19561958 




19581959 




1959 




1960 




19601963 




1961 




1962 




1963 
box 
2012142/16 (18083880) 



1964 [1 of 2],
1964 




1964 [2 of 2],
19641965 




1964 and later,
19642001 




1965 up to April 30,
JanuaryApril 1965 




1965 May 1 to Oct. 31,
MayOctober 1965 




1965 during trip to England,
AprilAugust 1965 




1965 Nov. 1 on,
NovemberDecember 1965 



Chronological File, Yale,
19661967 



Correspondence: 




1966 January 1 to June 31,
JanuaryJune 1966 




1966 July 1 to Sept. 31,
JulySeptember 1966 




1966 Oct. 1 to Dec. 31,
OctoberDecember 1966 
box 
2012142/17 (18083890) 



1967 Jan. 1 to June 30,
JanuaryJune 1967 




1967 July 1 to October middle,
JulyOctober 1967 




1967 October middle to end,
OctoberDecember 1967 



Chronological: 
box 
2012142/17 (18083890) 



1968 January thru March,
JanuaryMarch 1968 




1968 April thru July,
AprilJuly 1968 




1968 August thru Dec. 31,
AugustDecember 1968 




1969 Jan. 1 thru June 30,
JanuaryJune 1969 




1969 July 1 through Dec. 31,
JulyDecember 1969 



Wolfgang Hartmann,
19821984 
box 
2012142/18 (18083788) 


Chronological: Permanent, [1 of 2] 19811991 



Chronological: Permanent, [2 of 2] 19811991 



English Trip,
1965 



Professional papers from trip to England,
1965 



Romania trip [1 of 2],
1970 



Romania trip [2 of 2],
1970 



Trip to Israel,
Summer 1974 



Assorted Notes, Correspondence, and Figures,
1973, 19851997, undated 















Education and Teaching 
box 
2012142/18 (18083788) 


Transcripts,
19481956 



Notebook: "n^3⋅3⋅3⋅3…,”
undated 



Notebook: Math 368,
undated 



Notebook: "Lemma  If K...,"
undated 
box 
2012142/19 (18083799) 


Notebook: Physics 220,
1948 



Notes: Math 385, Axiomatic Homology Theory,
undated 



Notebook: Math 385, Notebook II,
1949 



Notebook: "Method for finding such formulas...,"
undated 



Notebook: Math 228/Math 385,
undated 



Notebooke: Math 371/Math 368,
undated 



Bochner's real variables,
undated 



Bochner real variables II,
undated 



Axiomatic homology notes, 2nd half,
1949 



Steenrod's algebraic topology,
undated 



Homotopy,
undated 



Elementary talk on knot theory,
undated 



Fox notes,
19551956 



Fox stuff,
1956, undated 
box 
2012142/20 (18083802) 


Discrete groups and their presentations, Fox lectures,
1955 



Old thesis material [1 of 2],
undated 



Old thesis material [2 of 2],
undated 



Universities of Michigan and Wisconsin: General,
19561959 



University of Wisconsin: Math 218, Topology,
1958 



University of Wisconsin: Math 218, Extra material,
1958 
box 
2012142/21 (18084055) 


Mathematics 113: Complete notes, problems, answers, tests,
1958 



MATH 113, Sec. 1,
1958 















Organizations 
box 
2012142/21 (18084055) 


Classification Society, Meeting invitations,
1970 



Classification Society, 1971, London, Canada,
1971 



Classification Society, 1970, 1971, and 1972 meetings,
19701972 



Classification Society, Third annual meeting,
1972 



Committee of Concerned Scientists, Sunday Seminar,
1981 



MDSW [Multidimensional Scaling Workshop],
19711972 



Pyschometric Society, Committee on charges by Guttman and Schönemann,
19761979 















Films 
box 
4RM225 


35 mm spliced movie,
undated 



Kruskal  M.A.A. Movie  Copy 1,
undated 



Multidimensional Scaling, Kruskal  M.A.A. Movie  Copy 2,
undated 
box 
4RM226 


Multidimensional Scaling, 16 mm,
1968 
