A Guide to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Scrapbook, 1942-1945
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) was born in Denison, Texas along the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad but moved to Abilene, Kansas, after his birth from where Eisenhower entered the United States Military Academy, West Point, in 1911 and graduated at the top of the middle third of his class. During World War II, Eisenhower was transferred to the War Plans Division under General George C. Marshall.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower was assigned to the Washington-based General Staff to craft war plans against Japan and Germany. After June 1942, he was appointed Deputy Chief in charge of Pacific Defenses under the Chief of War Plans Division, General Leonard T. Gerow, whom he succeeded follow Gerow’s appointment as commander of V Corps in the European Theater of Operations. Eisenhower was appointed Commanding General of the European Theater of Operations in 1942, then Supreme Commander Allied (Expeditionary) Force of the North African Theater of Operations. His authority expanded several times, encompassing more of the Mediterranean basin, until in 1944 when President Roosevelt appointed him Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force. He gave the order to begin landing on the Normandy beaches on June 6, 1944 (D-Day) and accepted the Nazi surrender eleven months later. Eisenhower was appointed the Military Governor of the United States Occupation Zone based in Frankfurt am Main and oversaw the distribution of food and medical supplied to the German refugees.
Eisenhower returned to Washington in November 1945, to replace General George C. Marshall as Chief of Staff of the Army. His primary responsibility was to oversee the demobilization of millions of soldiers. He briefly served as President of Columbia University in 1948, taking leave in 1950 to become the Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He retired from military service on May 31, 1952, and resumed his position at Columbia University until January 1952. Later that year, Eisenhower accepted the Republican nomination for President, following several years of demurring. As President, Eisenhower continued many of Roosevelt’s social reforms while insisting on greater fiscal responsibility in the federal government. Eisenhower left office in 1961 and died eight years later at Walter Reed Army Hospital outside Washington, D.C.
Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "Eisenhower, Dwight D.,"http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/EE/fei1.html (accessed July 8, 2010).
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Scrapbook, 1942-1945, contains a collection of newspaper clippings compiled by Mamie Eisenhower pertaining to the public career of General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
UThis collection is open for research use.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Scrapbook, 1942-1945, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.
Basic processing and cataloging of this collection was supported with funds from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) for the Briscoe Center’s "History Revealed: Bringing Collections to Light" project, 2009-2011.
Detailed Description of the Papers