University of Texas, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History

A Guide to the James Monroe Daugherty Papers, 1863-1905, 1933

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Daugherty, James M. (James Monroe), 1850-1942
Title: Daugherty, James Monroe, Papers
Dates: 1863-1905, 1933
Abstract: Papers of James M. Daugherty, Texas rancher and cattle driver.
Accession No.: 66-125
Extent: 2 ft., 7in.
Language: Materials are written in English.
Repository: Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Note

James M. Daugherty (1850-1942) attended McKenzie College near Clarksville from 1861-1864. He joined the Confederate Sates of America Army at the age of fourteen as an express rider delivering dispatches for General Samuel Cooper’s brigade. Following the Civil War, Daugherty relocated to San Antonio to work as cowboy for cattle-raiser James Adams. In 1866, Adams allowed Daugherty to drive 500 head of cattle to a new market opening in Missouri. The drive, which came at the beginning of the long-drive open-cattle business, started in Denton, Texas. The drive resulted in the loss of 150 cattle and nearly took Daugherty’s life, but was considered to be a success.

From 1867 to 1873, Daugherty led a series of cattle drives into Indian Territory on behalf of the government in order to provide the Indians with fresh meat. In 1872, Daugherty acquired a ranch near Trinidad, Colorado, and then later started another ranch in Stonewall County, Texas, on the South Fork of the Brazos River, establishing his home in Abilene while continuing in the cattle business.

In 1875, Daugherty married Sara Elizabeth (Bettie) Middleton, the daughter of a pioneer cattleman, with whom he had five children. He was active in local civic affairs in Abilene for several years before moving to an area of El Paso County that would later become Culberson County. Here, he started the Figure 2 Ranch, the Black Mountain Cattle Company, and the community of Daugherty. He organized Culberson County, served as an early county commissioner, organized two local banks and joined the newly formed Cattle Raisers Association of Texas (now the Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association). He was also a charter member of the Trail Drivers Association.


Blank, Deborah. “Daugherty, James Monroe.” Handbook of Texas Online. Accessed July 7, 2010.

Scope and Contents

The James Monroe Daugherty Papers, 1863-1905,1933, pertain to the business affairs of James Daugherty, including contracts with Indian Agencies, Daugherty’s bankruptcy (1879), production and marketing aspects of his cattle enterprises in and around Abilene and Van Horn, and mining ventures in Mexico and other investment interests. Materials include correspondence, contracts, deeds of cattle sales, tally, account and memorandum books, photographs, and financial records.


Access Restrictions

This collection is open for research use.

Index Terms

Subjects (Persons)
Baker, O. J.
Blockler, John
Daugherty, James M. (James monroe), 1850-1942 -- Archives
Daugherty, Tom J.
Daugherty, Will
Dedbo, Laura
Foutz, John
Haley, J. Evetts (James Evetts), 1901-1995
Hinton, Jess
Howell, George
Pendley, E. T.
Ritchardison, W. A.
Robinson, Joe
Timball, Mrs.
Wilson, Jim
Subjects (Organizations)
Black Mountain Cattle Company
Cattle Raisers Association of Texas
Figure 2 Ranch
Rayner Land and Cattle Company
Old Time Trail Drivers' Association
Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association
Cattle -- United States
Cattle industry -- Texas -- History
Indian reservations -- Oklahoma -- History
Indian reservations -- Texas -- History
Ranches -- Texas -- History
Ranching -- Texas -- History
Catoosa (Okla.) -- History
Abilene (Tex.) -- History
San Antonio (Tex.) -- History
Van Horn (Tex.) -- History
Culberson County (Tex.) -- History
Taylor county (Tex.) -- Hisory
Mexico -- History

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

James Monroe Daugherty Papers, 1863-1905,1933, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by W. H. Richer, December 1966. Subsequent revisions were made by Lynn Bell, May 1985.

Detailed Description of the Papers



2D45 Correspondence, 1872-1901
2D46 Correspondence, 1902-1905 and undated
Beef deliverty book, 1874-1877
Account books, 1870-1892
2D47 Tally books, 1870-1892
Tally books, 1870-1892
Cattle records:
Tally books of trail herds, 1872-1873
2D48 Cattle records:
Account books, 1872-1883
Account papers, 1870-September 1892
2D49 Cattle records:
Account papers, October 1892-1905 and undated
Check stubs
Cancelled checks
2D50 Fragments
Legal documents, Rayner Land and Cattle Col., 1863-1901 and undated
Daugherty interview by J. Evetts Haley, 1933
3Y25 Prints and negatives of Daugherty and his ranch
2.116/OD1224 Deeds of sale, 1870-1890
2.325/V3 Contracts and deeds of sale, 1870-1890
Letter, 1892
Stock report, 1901
Ledger, 1868-1870
Insurance policy, 1889