Texas State Library and Archives Commission

Texas Youth Commission:

An Inventory of Youth Commission Photographs at the Texas State Archives, 1916, 1957-1962, 1970-2001, undated, bulk 1983-1991



Overview

Creator: Texas Youth Commission.
Title: Youth Commission photographs
Dates: 1916, 1957-1962, 1970-2001, undated
bulk 1983-1991
Abstract: The Texas Youth Commission (TYC) provided for the care, custody, rehabilitation, and reestablishment into society of youths convicted of delinquent conduct. The TYC operated secure residential, institutional, and community-based programs for delinquent youth and supervised the youth once they returned to the community. It also contracted with private sector providers to operate residential and non-residential services. These records consist of photographs, photograph albums, negatives, and slides created by the TYC and its predecessor, the Texas Youth Council. Images are of TYC youth, staff and board members, and facilities, dating 1916, 1957-1962, 1970-2001, undated, bulk 1983-1991.
Quantity: 5.5 cubic ft.
Language: These materials are written predominately in English with scattered Spanish throughout.
Repository: Texas State Archives
Sponsor: This EAD finding aid was created in cooperation with Texas Archival Resources Online.

Agency History

Juvenile corrections efforts by the state of Texas began in 1887 with the passage of legislation for a House of Correction and Reformatory (which later became the State Juvenile Training School) (House Bill 21, 20th Texas Legislature, Regular Session). This correctional facility for boys began operation in 1889 in Gatesville. In 1913, the 33rd Legislature authorized the creation of the Girls' Training School (House Bill 570, Regular Session), a correctional facility for girls in Gainesville. It began operation in 1916. In 1945, the legislature approved the establishment of the State Training School for Delinquent and Dependent Colored Girls (Senate Bill 46, 49th Legislature, Regular Session); located in Brady, it began operation in 1947. Between 1887 and 1920, separate boards of directors managed each of these schools and reported directly to the governor. The Texas State Board of Control, created by the 36th Legislature in 1919 (Senate Bill 147, Regular Session) took over management of the three schools from 1920 to 1949.

Additional 1887 legislation established facilities to care for dependent and neglected children. The State Orphan's Asylum (later known as the Corsicana State Home), began operation in 1889 in Corsicana (Senate Bill 261, 20th Legislature, Regular Session, 1887). Further legislation in 1887 created another home (House Bill 445, 20th Legislature, Regular Session), located in Austin, known as the Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum for Colored Youth (later named the Texas Blind, Deaf and Orphan School). A third home was established in 1919, located in Waco (House Bill 112, 36th Legislature, Regular Session), as the State Home for Dependent and Neglected Children (later known as the Waco State Home). The state homes, as with the schools for delinquent children, were managed by the Board of Control beginning in 1920. Management of the Waco State Home passed to the Texas State Department of Public Welfare in 1939 (Senate Bill 36, 46th Legislature, Regular Session). Management of the Corsicana State Home; the Texas Blind, Deaf and Orphan Home; and the Waco State Home was transferred to the newly created Texas Board for State Hospitals and Special Schools in 1949 (House Bill 1, 51st Legislature, Regular Session).

In 1947, the 50th Legislature created the State Training Code Commission (Senate Concurrent Resolution 34, Regular Session), composed of seven members appointed by the governor, to study the state schools for delinquent children and examine the problem of juvenile delinquency. It was to determine changes that would improve the administration of the schools and enable them to more nearly accomplish their broad social objectives. The commission's report to the 51st Legislature resulted in the creation of the Texas State Youth Development Council.

The Texas State Youth Development Council was created in 1949 (House Bill 705, 51st Legislature, Regular Session). It was composed of six "influential" citizens appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate, and eight ex-officio members: Chairman, Board of Control; Executive Director, Department of Public Welfare; Commissioner of Education; Executive Director, Board for State Hospitals and Special Schools; State Health Officer; Director, Texas Department of Public Safety; Executive Secretary, Texas State Parks Board; and Chairman, Texas Employment Commission. The governor appointed the chair. The purpose of the council was to coordinate state efforts to help communities develop and strengthen child services. It was also directed to administer the state's correctional facilities for delinquent children by providing constructive training aimed at the rehabilitation and successful reestablishment of these children into society. The council took over control of the correctional schools then managed by the State Board of Control: the Gatesville State School for Boys, Gainesville State School for Girls, and the Brady State School for Delinquent Colored Girls.

The State Youth Development Council became the Texas Youth Council in 1957 (Senate Bill 303, 55th Legislature, Regular Session). It was composed of three members appointed by the governor with consent of the senate, to six year overlapping terms, and the members elected the chair. The members were to be citizens recognized in their communities for their interest in youth. The size of the commission increased to six in 1975 (Senate Bill 278, 64th Legislature, Regular Session). The Youth Council had the same duties as the State Youth Development Council, with the additional mandate to provide parole supervision for certain delinquent children until their discharge. The legislature also directed the Youth Council to operate institutions for dependent and neglected children (Corsicana State Home, Waco State Home, and Texas Blind, Deaf and Orphan School). During the 1970s the Youth Council initiated a county juvenile probation subsidy program that was transferred to the newly created Texas Juvenile Probation Commission in 1981 (House Bill 1904, 67th Legislature, Regular Session).

In 1971, a class action lawsuit, Morales v. Turman, was brought against the Texas Youth Council, its officers, and staff by children confined in the juvenile corrections facilities. In response to the lawsuit, changes were initiated in the way juvenile correction facilities were operated.

The Texas Youth Council was renamed as the Texas Youth Commission (TYC) in 1983 (Senate Bill 422, 68th Texas Legislature, Regular Session). The duties of the commission included providing services to delinquent youths between 10 and 21 years of age through programs and facilities that administer constructive training for rehabilitation. The TYC operated under the Texas Human Resource Code, Title 3, Chapter 61, as the state's juvenile correction agency. Under Title 3 of the Texas Family Code, the TYC provided for the care, custody, rehabilitation, and reestablishment into society of those youth convicted of delinquent conduct. The TYC operated secure residential, institutional, and community-based programs for delinquent youth and supervised the youth once they returned to the community. It also contracted with private sector providers to operate residential and non-residential services. The TYC protected the identities of youth admitted to their facilities by keeping personal information confidential (such as names and home addresses) and not allowing photographs of the children to be taken (without permission of the child) as required by the Texas Family Code, Section 58.005.

In 1995, the 74th Legislature passed an omnibus juvenile justice reform package, House Bill 327 (Regular Session), that changed the way juvenile justice was administered in Texas. The bill expanded the offenses for which a youth could receive a determinate sentence (sentence with a fixed term) to include most violent offenses, such as murder, rape, and aggravated assault. It also enabled supervision of youth to continue into the adult criminal justice system; lowered the age that a juvenile could be tried as an adult from 15 to 14; and directed that both the most violent juvenile defenders and mentally ill delinquent youth be sent to the TYC. In light of this new legislation, TYC provided greater structure, strictly enforced discipline, and increased accountability of the delinquent youth in their programs.

Youth committed for minor offenses are the responsibility of local governments. The TYC received the most serious offenders with longer sentences. These comprised two categories: committed juveniles and sentenced offenders. Committed juveniles were sent to the commission by juvenile courts after adjudication, allowing the Youth Commission to determine the length of stay and the type of services provided (e.g., Capitol Offender Program or Chemical Dependency Program). The second category, sentenced offenders, were given a specific sentence through determinate sentencing status and could not be released prior to their sentence termination.

The TYC directly operated fourteen correctional institutions and nine community-based residential programs and contracted with private sector providers for a variety of residential programs. Through these institutions and facilities the TYC provided accredited secondary education, vocational training, and several specialized programs concerning sex offenders, capital offenders who have committed murder, chemical dependency, resocialization, independent living preparation, mentally retarded youth, and seriously emotionally disturbed youth. The TYC also operated a parole system for supervision of youth released from residential programs.

The TYC also administered the Interstate Compact on Juveniles (ICJ) for the state of Texas. The ICJ provides for the cooperative supervision of juvenile probationers and parolees who move from state to state. It also provides for the return of non-delinquent runaway youth, parole and probation absconders, and escapees to their home state. The administrators of each state compact are members of the Association of Juvenile Compact Administrators (AJCA). The AJCA holds annual meetings and sponsors mid-winter workshops on relevant juvenile issues.

In 2011, the TYC and the Texas Juvenile Probation Commission (TJPC) were abolished and their operations were transferred to the newly-created Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) (Senate Bill 653, 82nd Legislature, Regular Session). The TJJD works in partnership with local county governments, courts, and communities to promote public safety by providing support and services to any individual who is at least 10 years old but not yet 17 at the time he or she committed an act defined as "delinquent conduct" or "conduct in need of supervision," from the time of initial contact through the end of supervision.

According to an internal agency history (and repeated by the Handbook of Texas) the roots of the Youth Commission extend back to 1859 when the 8th Legislature authorized separate corrections facilities for children (the age of criminal responsibility was nine at this time; it was raised to seventeen in 1918). No funding was provided and such facilities were not established until 1887. The State Archives is unable to locate the 1859 legislation referred to in these sources.

(Sources include: Guide to Texas State Agencies, various editions; General and Special Laws, various years; Jasinski, Laurie E."Texas Youth Commission," Handbook of Texas Online; Texas Juvenile Justice Department website; and the Texas Youth Commission website via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at https://web.archive.org/web/*/tyc.state.tx.us; all accessed on September 26, 2016; and the records themselves.)


Scope and Contents of the Records

The Texas Youth Commission (TYC) provided for the care, custody, rehabilitation, and reestablishment into society of youths convicted of delinquent conduct. The TYC operated secure residential, institutional, and community-based programs for delinquent youth and supervised the youth once they returned to the community. It also contracted with private sector providers to operate residential and non-residential services. These records consist of photographs, photograph albums, negatives, and slides created by TYC and its predecessor, the Texas Youth Council. Images are of TYC youth, staff, board members, and facilities, dating 1916, 1957-1962, 1970-2001, undated, bulk 1983-1991.

Texas Youth Council images are of children and staff at the facilities operated by the Council, including state juvenile training schools and the state orphanages. Loose photographs include some 8 x 10-inch black-and-white photographs mounted on display-type board with captions. The name of the school or home is on the reverse side of the board for most images. Other loose photographs are 8 x 10-inch and smaller black-and-white images, usually with no identifying information. Views include children in classrooms or in training areas, such as machine shops or beauty salons; children engaged in recreational activities, such as singing groups, gym classes, swimming, or playing sports; views of construction at the Mountain View school; interior and exterior views from the Gainesville school; and a few photos of Texas governors Beauford Jester and Price Daniel. The facilities identified in the photos are Gainesville, Gatesville, Mountain View, and Crockett schools; the state orphans homes in Corsicana and Waco; and the Blind, Deaf and Orphan School. The photographs are largely undated, but based on the styles of dress, furnishings, and items seen in the photos, most of the images were likely taken in the early to mid-1960s.

There are two sets of photograph albums from the Texas Youth Council. The first set consists of three albums of pictures from the West Texas Children's Home, most taken in the early to mid-1970s. These views consist of color snapshots of Christmas celebrations, a Halloween party, children swimming, prom shots, and shots from student council trips. Also present are several black-and-white 5 x 7-inch shots of Governor John Connally and Lieutenant Governor Ben Barnes at outdoor events, likely taken in the early to mid-1960s. The second set of albums consists of two identical albums of color snapshots from the Crockett Wilderness Program dating from 1978. Views shown are camp scenes, including setting up camp and participating in a variety of camping activities.

The Texas Youth Commission photographs are of many of the same facilities represented in the Texas Youth Council photographs, along with halfway houses and group homes. The facilities include Brownwood State School, Corsicana State Home, Crockett State School, Gainesville State School, Giddings State School, West Texas State School, Evins Regional Juvenile Center, McFadden Ranch, Middleton House, Nueces House, Salado House, Turman House, Schaeffer House, Willoughby House, York House, Ayres House, and Beto House. Additional images include headshots and portraits of TYC staff and board members, along with work related events such as facility open houses, conferences, meetings, awards and staff celebrations. Governor Ann Richards is photographed at an event at the Brownwood State School in 1991. These images include black-and-white and color photographs of various sizes including 4 x 6-inch and 8 x 10-inch, 35 mm negatives and slides.

Some of these photographs are confidential under Texas Family Code, Section 58.005. If a child in a juvenile facility operated by the Texas Youth Council/Commission can be identified from a photograph, that image is confidential unless the image was published, such as in an annual report or a brochure about the programs at a facility. If published in an agency publication, it is assumed the child would have granted permission for his image to be taken.

Earlier photographs (also confidential) at orphan homes or state training facilities can be found in the State Board of Control records, housed at the State Archives. Also, early annual/biennial reports from the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the Gatesville State School for Boys (formerly the House of Correction and Reformatory, then the State Juvenile Training School) contain a large number of pictures of the facilities and the students. Some of these reports are located in the TSLAC Texas Documents Collection. The location of the original photographs used in these annual/biennial reports is unknown.


Arrangement of the Records

The records are arranged as received. Within albums, the photographs are arranged chronologically.

Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

Materials do not circulate, but may be used in the State Archives search room. Materials will be retrieved from and returned to storage areas by staff members.

Because of the possibility that portions of these records fall under Public Information Act exceptions including, but not limited to, photographs where individual children in Youth Commission facilities can be identified unless the child granted permission to allow the photograph to be taken (Texas Family Code, Section 58.005); an archivist must review these records before they can be accessed for research. The records may be requested for research under the provisions of the Public Information Act (Texas Government Code, Chapter 552).

The researcher may request an interview with an archivist or submit a request by mail (Texas State Library and Archives Commission, P.O. Box 12927, Austin, TX 78711), fax (512-463-5436), email (director.librarian@tsl.texas.gov), or see our web page (https://www.tsl.texas.gov/agency/customer/pia.html). Include enough description and detail about the information requested to enable the archivist to accurately identify and locate the information. If our review reveals information that may be excepted by the Public Information Act, we are obligated to seek an open records decision from the Attorney General on whether the records can be released. The Public Information Act allows the Archives ten working days after receiving a request to make this determination. The Attorney General has 45 working days to render a decision. Alternately, the Archives can inform you of the nature of the potentially excepted information and if you agree, that information can be redacted or removed and you can access the remainder of the records.

Restrictions on Use

Most records created by Texas state agencies are not copyrighted. State records also include materials received by, not created by, state agencies. Copyright remains with the creator. The researcher is responsible for complying with U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S.C.).

Technical Requirements

Researchers are required to wear gloves provided by the Archives when reviewing photographic materials.


Index Terms

The terms listed here were used to catalog the records. The terms can be used to find similar or related records.
Corporate Names:
Texas Youth Council.
Subjects (Organizations):
West Texas Children's Home--Pictorial works.
Corsicana State Home--Pictorial works.
Gatesville State School for Boys--Pictorial works.
Brownwood State School--Pictorial works.
Crockett State School--Pictorial works.
Giddings State School--Pictorial works.
Gainesville State School for Girls (Tex.)--Pictorial works.
Subjects:
Juvenile justice, Administration of--Texas--Pictorial works.
Juvenile corrections--Texas--Pictorial works.
Halfway houses--Texas--Pictorial works.
Places:
Gatesville (Tex.)--Pictorial works.
Gainesville (Tex.)--Pictorial works.
Brownwood (Tex.)--Pictorial works.
Corsicana (Tex.)--Pictorial works.
Document Types:
Photographs--Texas.
Slides (photographs)--Texas.
Negatives (photographs)--Texas.
Functions:
Administration of juvenile corrections.

Related Material

The following materials are offered as possible sources of further information on the agencies and subjects covered by the records. The listing is not exhaustive.

Texas State Archives
Texas State Board of Control records, 1854, 1885-1890, 1909-1979, undated, bulk 1935-1953, 103.47 cubic ft. (see the series Photographs.) [RESTRICTED]
Texas Youth Commission executive office records, 1916, 1931-1936, 1953, 1961-2009, 1.95 cubic ft.
Publications
Texas. House of Correction and Reformatory. Biennial report of the Trustees and Superintendent of the House of Correction and Reformatory at Gatesville, Texas. Austin: State Printing Office, 1890-
Texas. State Juvenile Training School. Biennial reports, 1908-1920.

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

(Identify the item), Texas Youth Commission photographs. Archives and Information Services Division, Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Accession Information

Accession numbers: 1999/087, 2007/203, 2014/044

These records were transferred to the Archives and Information Services Division of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission by the Texas Youth Commission on January 11, 1999, and July 27, 2007; and by the Texas Juvenile Justice Department on November 8, 2013.

Processing Information

Processed by Laura K. Saegert, May 2000

Series removed from larger inventory and new accessions added by Halley Grogan, January 2017


Detailed Description of the Records

Texas Youth Commission photographs, 1916, 1957-1962, 1970-2001, undated, bulk 1983-1991,
5.5 cubic ft.

Box
1999/087-11 Loose photographs, about 1960-about 1978
Box
1999/087-12 West Texas Children's Home:
[3 albums]
Halloween Party, 1970
Miscellaneous views, early 1960s, about 1970-1976
Crockett State School Wilderness Program, 1978
[2 albums]
Box
2007/203-12 Corpus HWH (Halfway House), 1983
El Paso House, open house, June 1981
Middleton House, May 1981
Nueces House, 1981
Salado House, 1982
Turman House, dedication, September 1985
Turman House, fire, about 1983
Turman House, loose, about 1980s
Schaeffer House, dedication, undated
Willoughby House
[empty folder]
Valley House
[empty folder]
York House
[empty folder]
Contract programs, Gulf Coast Trades Center, July 1995
Group homes, San Marcos group house open house, February 28, 1985
Group homes, Austin group home, October 1985
Miscellaneous, in packet, undated
Miscellaneous, loose, unknown retiree's party; photo of Ayres open house, and 1950s era board or council, undated
Ron Jackson, portrait views, headshots, 1970s-1980s
[3 folders]
Shots from Kerrville conference in 1980, Ron Jackson with older youth, staff outing and slide of hikers, 1973
Kerrville, 1980
Loose, 1981
Shamburger / Beto going away, 1981
Kirlle (likely Kerrville), 1981
Board luncheon, May 1981
Pete Harrell going away, May 1982
S.A. (San Antonio) volunteer conference, 1982
TCA, 1982
Steven Robinson birthday, South Texas Del to Brownwood, and Carolyn Painter going away, 1982
[only negatives]
Loose, staff events and awards, 1983
Board meeting in Corsicana, January 1983
Reception for Representative Parker in Brownwood, 1983
Ron's 10-year anniversary, 1983
Schaeffer, workmen, Giddings, going away, 1983
Board luncheon, October 1983
Loose, awards and staff events, 1984
Loose, 1984
Legislator honored at Crockett, February 7, 1984
Consultant orientation, June 1984
Kerrville, 1984
ACA (American Correctional Association) conference, August 1984
Trewitt's going-away, November 1984
Loose, 1985
Kerrville, staff event, 1985
[only negatives]
Jim Bowie's appreciation dinner, December 12, 1985
Loose, staff events, 1986
Bob Drake's going-away party, February 1986
Kerrville, staff events, July 1986
Rio Grande Marine Institute School groundbreaking, February 11, 1986
Board luncheon, May 1986
C.O. Kiddie Christmas, December 1986
Loose, staff event, 1987
Linda Rom going away, 1987
Kerrville, staff event, 1987
Joyce Rigler's going away, 1987
[only negatives]
Ron's 47th birthday and Mexican official visit, October 1987
June Cox retirement, October 1987
Kiddie Christmas party, December 1987
Loose, Kerrville, 1987
[Images match negatives in following folder.]
Kerrville, 1988
El Camino Real, Nueces House Crossroads, 1988
New board members, 1988
Board meeting, El Paso, 1988
Riddle's going away, December 1988
Kiddie Christmas, December 1988
Mrs. Curry and resident Christmas party, 1988
Loose, staff events, 1989
(Farming), 1989
ACA, San Antonio, January 1989
C.O. party at Parrie Haynes, 1989
Box
2007/203-13 Kerrville, 1989
[2 folders]
NCCD (National Council on Crime and Delinquency) award, 1989
N. Miller's retirement trip to El Paso, 1989
Brownwood and Ropes, 1989
Open house, September 1989
[2 folders]
Kiddie Christmas party, 1989
Loose, staff events, 1990
[3 folders]
Brownwood, West Texas livestock, 1990
Kerrville, 1990
Staff event, 1990
Kiss the Pig, 1991
Board meeting, March 1991
Staff events, 1991
[negatives]
C.O. Picnic, October 5, 1991
Kerrville, 1991
Loretta Smith, Employee of the Quarter and Christmas party, 1991
Christmas, 1992
1993
Kerrville, 1993
[2 folders]
McFadden open house, Cottrell House dedication, 1993
[negatives]
N. Emmert Quarter winner, Christmas kiddie party, 1993
Staff events, 1994
Kerrville, 1994
[2 folders]
Linda Ross, NR Intercultural Award, 1994
Annual workshop, July 1995
[4 folders]
York house, dedication, 1995
[4 folders]
Displays, etc., 1999
Box
2007/203-14 Christmas, 1995
[2 folders]
Annual workshop, July 1996
Executive admin, open house, August 1996
Staff event, administrators workshop, June-July 1997
[3 folders]
Halloween event, 1997
Summer celebration picnic, July 1998
[5 folders]
C.O. awards picnic, July 1998
Board, group photo of TYC staff, September 1985
Board members, 1995
Board, staff holding certificates of accreditation, 1995
Board, group photo, 1990s
Board, loose, 1981-1992
Board members, 1982
Board, loose photos of members, about 1986-1990
Board members, 1984
Board members, 1991
Board members, 1992
Board members, October 1993
Board, Richard Abalos, undated
Board, George Beto, undated
Board, Susan Bush, undated
Board, Gary Compton, undated
Board, Comer Cottrel, undated
Board, Kenn George, undated
Board, Marilla King, undated
Board, Jorge Rangel, undated
Board, Ruben Schaeffer, undated
Board, Lisa Teschner, undated
Floyd Williams, undated
Board, Mrs. Willoughby, undated
Board, Don Workman, undated
Board, Larry York, undated
Board members, miscellaneous, undated
Board, Mrs. Pat Ayers, undated
Employee pictures, undated
[2 folders]
Youth, Brownwood State School, Board trip, 1988
[2 folders]
Brownwood, undated
Youth, Brownwood State School, about 1983-1984
Youth, Brownwood State School, Governor Richards, August 27, 1991
Youth, Corsicana State Home, undated
Youth, Corsicana Training Facility, undated
Youth, Crockett State School, undated
Youth, Gainesville, undated
Youth, Giddings State School, undated
[2 folders]
Youth, West Texas State School, 1986
Youth, West Texas State School, 1987
Youth, West Texas State School, miscellaneous, undated
Youth, West Texas State School, dedication of academic buildings, undated
Youth, bootcamp, Sheffield, grand opening, March 31, 1995
Youth, Jefferson County State School, undated
Evins Regional Center, dorm director's workshop, undated
Evins Regional Center, groundbreaking, 1986
[2 folders]
Evins Regional Center, open house, 1987
Evins Regional Center, Board meeting and grand opening, 1990
Loose, 2000
Staff event, 2000
Awards, 2001
Commission meeting and awards, 2001
Mart, 2001
Loose, meeting at Brownwood, 2001
Kids in action, undated
[2 folders]
Ayres House, undated
Beto House, rededication, undated
Beto House, Allen open house, undated
Dallas House, undated
Box
2007/203-15 Cottrell House, undated
[2 folders]
McFadden Ranch, open house, 1993
Advisory Committee, about 1950s
[Names on verso.]
Mounted photos, 1960s
Gatesville, progress shots, 1957-1962
Proof sheets, 1970s-1980s
Gainesville, undated
Pictures for deposition, undated
Steve Robinson and miscellaneous, 1990s
Miscellaneous loose, undated
State Boys newsletter, 1916
[Redacted.]
Negatives, rolled strips, undated
Slides, miscellaneous, undated
Slides, kids in vocational classes, undated
Slides, counseling, undated
Slides, kids pics, undated
Slides, education, undated
Slides, kids activities, undated
Slides, facilities, undated
Slides, list of board members, undated
Slides, Brownwood State School and recreation center, 1992
[3 folders]
Slides, Gainesville CD awards, undated
Box
2014/044-51 Parrie Haynes Ranch, view of grounds,1970s
[wallet, color photographs]