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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Descriptive Summary

Scope and Contents Note

Restrictions

Index Terms

Administrative Information

Description of Series

I. Documentary Feature

II. Unedited Footage

The Human Rights Documentation Initiative

Women's Caucus for Gender Justice's documentary footage for If Hope Were Enough



Descriptive Summary

Creator Women's Caucus for Gender Justice, Witness (Organization)
Title Women's Caucus for Gender Justice's documentary footage for If Hope Were Enough
Dates: 1998-2000
Abstract The Women's Caucus for Gender Justice's (WCGJ) documentary footage for If Hope Were Enough contains the documentary production in English, Spanish, and French as well as raw footage of panels for the Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom); a WCGJ retreat; interviews conducted for the documentary; and b-roll footage from Chiapas, Mexico.
Accession No. 2012-01
OCLC Record No.
Extent 47 videos
Language English, Spanish, Korean, Tzotzil, French
Repository UT Libraries Human Rights Documentation Initiative, The University of Texas at Austin

Historical Note

The Women’s Caucus for Gender Justice grew out of an organizing effort of a small group of women human rights activists from the Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Costa Rica, Georgia, Germany, India, Japan, the Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and the United States who attended the February 1997 Preparatory Committee (Prepcom) for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court at the United Nations. By advocating for the codification of sexual, reproductive and gender violence crimes of, as well as for the inclusion of gender sensitive processes and criteria for personnel, the Caucus tried to ensure that the Court would have the capacity to implement justice for women. Some of the issues that the WCGJ sought to address in the ICC Prepcom include the integration of gender in legislation, the gendered nature and limitations of international criminal justice, the services that women need and the mechanisms to meet those needs, and the issues involved with using the western paradigm of women's rights in other countries.

The WCGJ, in association with WITNESS, produced If Hope Were Enough for the purposes of education, advocacy and capacity building as part of the organization's outreach efforts to promote the ICC. Through interviews with survivors of gender-based violence, If Hope Were Enough documents the ways in which women have worked to bring accountability for crimes of sexual and gender violence in conflict and non-conflict situations around the world and the struggles of gender-based violence survivors in Korea, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda, Afghanistan and Mexico. The documentary includes archival documentary footage of interviews with “comfort women” in Korea who were forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese Imperial Military during World War II. Because gender-based violence was not recognized as a crime against humanity until 1993 this enslavement has gone unpunished. The documentary also includes original interviews with survivors of the massacre in Acteal, a small village in Mexico’s southern state of Chiapas. In 1997, a state-funded and state-trained paramilitary group massacred 45 mainly indigenous women and children in Chiapas, Mexico and the perpetrators have not been tried in any court. During the collapse of the former Yugoslavia, accounts of mass rape and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Herzegovina were brought and tried at an ad hoc International Criminal Tribunal (ICTY) at The Hague in 1993, as were similar accounts at another ad hoc International Criminal Tribunal (ICTR) for the genocide in Rwanda in 1995. The documentary includes archival interviews with survivors of gender-based violence in Bosnia as well as original interviews with advisors and judges at the ICTR.

The Women’s Caucus for Gender Justice is now “Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice.”

References

Women’s Initiatives for Gender Justice. "Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice: History," http://www.iccwomen.org/aboutus/history.php (accessed November 14, 2012)

Women's Caucus for Gender Justice. "Women's Caucus for Gender Justice: About the Women's Caucus," http://www.iccwomen.org/wigjdraft1/Archives/oldWCGJ/aboutcaucus.htm (accessed November 14, 2012)

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Scope and Contents Note

This collection is divided into two main series:

  Series 1: Documentary feature, 2000

This series contains the full-length documentary in English, Spanish, and French.

  Series 2: Unedited Footage, 1998-2000

This series contains unedited footage of ICC Prepcom panels, workshops at a WCGJ retreat, and interview and b-roll footage for If Hope Were Enough. This series contains three restricted videos.

  Subseries 1: Preparatory Commissions of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom Panels), 1999-2000

This subseries contains nine unedited videos of Preparatory Commissions for the International Criminal Court. Subjects discussed in these videos include lessons learned from the International Criminal Tribunals in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia and the need for rules to ensure protection for victims and witnesses, especially for victims of sexual violence. Speakers include Francoise Ngendahayo, Advisor on Gender Issues and Assistance to Victims at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; Elizabeth Odio-Benito, Vice-President of Costa Rica and a former judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia; and Madeleine Rees, of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The videos in the subseries are ordered sequentially. Abstracts were provided by WCGJ and WITNESS

  Subseries 2: WCGJ Retreat in Sag Harbor, New York, 1999

This subseries contains four unedited videos of workshops in Sag Harbor, New York where the WCGJ met to discuss the gendered nature and limitations of international criminal justice, services that women need, and the mechanisms to meet those needs. The videos in the subseries are ordered sequentially. Abstracts were provided by WCGJ and WITNESS.

  Subseries 3: Interview and b-roll footage, 1999-2000

This subseries contains thirty-one unedited videos of interviews that the WCGJ conducted for If Hope Were Enough, and b-roll footage from a trip Chiapas, Mexico where the filmmakers interviewed survivors of the massacre in the village of Acteal in 1997. The interviewees include women involved in the creation of the International Criminal Court, women’s rights advocates in non-governmental organizations from the nations represented in the documentary, and survivors of gender-based violence. Organizations represented in the interviews include the Coalition for the Creation of the International Criminal Court, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, the International Women’s Human Rights Clinic at the City University of New York Law School, the Asian Centre for Women’s Human Rights, the Women’s Alliance for Peace and Human Rights in Afghanistan, Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristobal, and Salud y Desarrollo Comunitario. The videos in this subseries are ordered chronologically. Abstracts were provided by WCGJ and WITNESS.

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Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Three videos are restricted to protect the privacy of the women documented.

Use Restrictions

These materials are made available by the University of Texas Libraries solely for the purposes of research, teaching and private study. All intellectual property rights are retained by the legal copyright holders. The University of Texas does not hold the copyright to the content of this file. Formal permission to reuse or republish this content must be obtained from the copyright holder.

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Index Terms

This is classified under the following Subject Headings in the University of Texas Libraries catalog:
Subjects
Acteal Massacre, Acteal, Mexico, 1997
Comfort women--Korea--History
Crimes against humanity
Genocide--Rwanda
Human rights
International Criminal Court
International Criminal Law
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International tribunal for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991
Massacres--Mexico--Acteal
Rape
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998)
Service, Compulsory non-military--Asia
War Crime Trials
War Crime Trials--Former Yugoslav Republics
War Crime Trials--Rwanda
Women's Rights
Women--Violence against--Afghanistan
Women--Violence against--Mexico
Women--Violence against--Rwanda

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Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Cite as: [Name of video], The Women's Caucus for Gender Justice's (WCGJ) documentary footage for If Hope Were Enough, Human Rights Documentation Initiative, University of Texas Libraries, the University of Texas at Austin, [link to video].

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Box and Folder Inventory

 

I. Documentary Feature , 2000
(3 videos)

box folder
2800 E006993
If Hope Were Enough
English language version of If Hope Were Enough [RT 36:21]
box folder
2802 E006994
If Hope Were Enough
Spanish language version of If Hope Were Enough [RT 36:21]

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II. Unedited Footage , 1998-2000

I. Preparatory Commissions of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom Panels), 1998-2000
box folder
3228 E008978 [2nd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), "Perspectives from the Tribunals" panel, part 1], 27 July 1999
This video is restricted. First part of footage from a panel hosted by the Women's Caucus entitled "Witnesses Speak," held on July 27, 1999 as part of the 2nd Preparatory Commission of the ICC. The participants included two women from Rwanda who wished to remain anonymous, referred to as Witness A and Witness B; Mary Balikungeri, of the Rwandan Women's Community Network; Annette Lyth, who has worked with victims and survivors on the ground in Rwanda and Kosovo as part of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and later Kvinna till Kvinna in Sweden; and Agwu Okali, registrar at the ICTR. Betty Murungi, a human rights lawyer from Kenya, moderated. Pam Spees, of the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice, served as rapporteur. The discussion also benefitted from the insights of Ms. Francoise Ngendahayo, Advisor on Gender Issues and Assistance to Victims at the ICTR, who spoke when the discussion was opened for general questions and comments. The video begins with an introduction by Betty Murungi. Murungi introduces the panelists. The first speaker speaks in French, which is translated in English, and wears a headscarf and veil to obscure her identity. She is one of two women survivors from Rwanda on the panel. She describes her experience as a survivor of rape during the events of 1994. She talks about her life during the war, explaining that she was raped every day. She asks if the international community truly understands the atrocities and consequences of rape that women and children have to deal with, such as trauma and HIV, and asks if the ICC really has the power to give her justice. She asks why the tribunal was set up in Arusha and not in Rwanda. She concludes with a plea for justice. The second anonymous survivor talks about her experience going to Arusha to testify (in English), and says that things did not happen as she expected. As a witness, her identity was supposed to be protected, but it was compromised at many points. She recounts that members of the ICTR in Kigali came to her office, which threatened her security. Later, in Arusha, two cleaning staff saw her and recognized her. At the airport in Arusha, everyone could see that she had traveled by UN plane. While she was in Arusha, her passport was taken away and she was kept in a house with Tanzanian soldiers and workers for two days. In the court room, she was told that the accused would be sitting in front of her and that she would have to identify him. She was relieved when she found out he was too ill to appear in court, and declined to testify at another time. She says that if she is recognized, she will be in danger even if the accused is in jail. She says that the ICTR should explain the procedures to witnesses before they agree to testify. Mary Balikungeri, from the Rwandan Women’s Community Network, talks how previous tribunals have gone wrong and what the ICC can do to for victims and ensure that their participation is meaningful. She asks if the legal proceedings are actually designed to give justice to victims or just to assuage the guilt of the world community that allowed such crimes to occur. She asserts that the tribunals need to be made more relevant to survivors in order to achieve justice. Agwu Okali, registrar at the ICTR, talks about how he has advocated for victims' participation and a victim-oriented approach to justice. He discusses the need for a gender advisor in the ICTR and states that they have been working to improve the treatment of victims, but are still learning. He discusses how they have dealt with challenges like locating witnesses who are scattered around the world, and may be living illegally in other countries. He continues by discussing the difficulties of working in a society that is not accustomed to keeping records, and where evidence is based in oral testimony. Annette Lyth describes her experiences working in tribunals, praising the sensitivity shown to the victims during the Kosovo trials. She compares the ICTY and ICTR, and notes that none of the investigators in the Rwandan tribunal had any experience in working with sexual violence cases in their home countries, whereas the investigators in Kosovo had more experience and a more sensitized approach. She observes that Bosnian women's organizations tended to see the tribunal as a means for getting justice, while Rwandan women's organizations were more skeptical . She asserts that by including safeguards in the statutes, victims will be better supported. Questions from the audience follow. A woman asks about the funding differential in funding between ICTY and ICTR. Ben Ferencz, a former Prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials, talks about the importance of rehabilitation and compensation for victims. He says that the process is extremely complicated and costly, but important to carry out.
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7227 E009575 04 August 1999
[2nd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), Perspectives from the Tribunals panel, part 1]
[poor audio] First part of footage from a panel on "Perspectives from the Tribunals," organized by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice as part of the 2nd Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court in August 1999. Panelists were Wendy Lobwein, a support officer in the victim-witness unit at the ICTY; Francoise Ngendahayo, advisor on gender issues and assistance to victims in the ICTR; the Hon. Elizabeth Odio-Benito, Vice-President of Costa Rica and a former judge at the ICTY; and Dr. Sara Sharratt, a former NGO Observer at the ICTY. Dr. Yael Danieli, of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and the Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and their Children, moderated. Annette Lyth served as rapporteur. The video begins with an introduction by Pam Spees from the Women's Caucus. Dr. Yael Danieli then introduces the speakers. Elizabeth Odio Benito talks about her experience at the ICTY. She says that when they were drawing up the procedures, she recognized the need for rules to ensure protection for victims and witnesses, especially for victims of sexual violence. Because there were only two women judges, she says that it was a difficult task to have these rules included. At the first public appearance of the tribunal, she noticed that rape and sexual violence was absent from the indictment. She pointed out the necessity of examining crimes of rape and sexual violence, which was shocking at the time, but which went on to appear in future charges. Sara Sharratt talks about the need for protection and security, participation pre-trial and during trial, and reparations for victims and witnesses at the ICC. She says that these rules would have made a considerable difference at the ICTY. She gives specific examples from the ICTY in which the absence of these rules allowed gender imbalance, gender insensitivity, and ignorance about the centrality of gender issues to occur. Françoise Ngendahayo speaks about the ICTR, where there were no provisions on victims' representation. She talks about how she wrote an amendment on victim's assistance, which was accepted in July 1999. Ngendahayo says that one of the obstacles to victims' participation is the lack of information about their rights. She says that victims are also afraid to testify because of instances where witnesses have been killed upon return to Rwanda. She says that the tribunal can protect witnesses better, for example, by transporting witnesses to the tribunal by more covert means. Wendy Lobwein talks about her experience from the Victim and Witness section of the ICTY. She says that while the need for protection and support of victims and witnesses was envisaged, the logistical requirements of providing that protection was enormous and overwhelming. Lobwein details some of the logistical issues they encountered. Since then, the program has increased staffing and created a framework of support programs. The support program includes information to witnesses, escorted travel, 24-hour live-in assistance, insurance, psychological support, accommodations, daily allowance, compensation for lost wages, and child and dependent care.
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3227 B01571 04 August 1999
[2nd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), Perspectives from the Tribunals panel, part 2]
[Poor audio] Second part of footage from a panel on "Perspectives from the Tribunals," organized by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice as part of the 2nd Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court in August 1999. Panelists were Wendy Lobwein, a support officer in the victim-witness unit at the ICTY; Francoise Ngendahayo, advisor on gender issues and assistance to victims in the ICTR; the Hon. Elizabeth Odio-Benito, Vice-President of Costa Rica and a former judge at the ICTY; and Dr. Sara Sharratt, a former NGO Observer at the ICTY. Dr. Yael Danieli, of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and the Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and their Children, moderated. Annette Lyth served as rapporteur. Continuation of presentation by Wendy Lobwein, discussing the work of the Victim and Witness unit of the ICTY. Lobwein talks about some of the emerging issues that they are exploring, including witness preparation, legal privilege, and legal advice. She then describes a 2-year study to find a means for witnesses to evaluate the services of the unit. Yael Danieli then opens to floor to questions. An audience member asks Lobwein for more information on the study, specifically on the inclusion of children born from rape. Françoise Ngendahayo then fields a question about providing legal advice to witnesses. An audience member asks about procedures, and a woman explains that the procedures followed by judges in the former Yugoslavia are different than the US and is therefore unsure how the trials will proceed. Elizabeth Odio Benito states that procedures must be clearly articulated. Ngendahayo adds that they will try to find the right structure.
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3095 E008918 15 December 1999
[3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), Crimes Against Humanity Panel, part 1]
This is the first part of footage from a panel discussion organized by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice on crimes against humanity, held during of the 3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court in New York City in December 1999. Four panelists - Vahida Nainar, of the Women's Caucus; Hawa Ghaus, associate for Global Programs at the Feminist Majority Foundation; Giti, a woman from Afghanistan, who is translated by Zieba Shorish-Shanley of the Women's Caucus; Asma Khader, the president of MIZAN, a law group on human rights in Jordan; and Jan Perlin, of the International Human Rights Law Clinic and the Guatemala Truth Commission, present and discuss the issue of crimes against women, giving various examples, and explain that and why crimes against women have to be considered as crimes against humanity. All footage of this video take place within a conference room. After Vahida Nainar makes an introduction, Hawa Ghaus discusses the situation in Afghanistan, describing the abuse that women suffer at the hands of the Taliban. She calls for international support of these women as well as for pressure to be put on Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates for supporting the Taliban. Asma Khader explains about the democratization of Jordan, mentioning that there are still significant difficulties facing the women there; for example, while they do have political freedoms, such as the right to to vote, Khader states that they are still prisoners in their homes, too afraid of social or familial reject to defend or assert themselves. Nainar cautions participants to take care that statutes have verbiage in them to actively support women.
box folder
3096 E008919 15 December 1999
[3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), Crimes Against Humanity Panel, part 2],
This is the second part of footage from a panel discussion organized by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice on crimes against humanity, held during of the 3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court in New York City in December 1999. Four panelists present and discuss the issue of crimes against women, giving various examples, and explain why crimes against women have to be considered as crimes against humanity. The panel continues with Jan Perlin, of the International Human Rights Law Clinic and the Guatemala Truth Commission, who discusses institutional responsibility in the defense of women. Vahida Nainar of the Women's Caucus summarizes earlier discussions. During the question and answer period, Hawa Ghaus, the associate for Global Programs at the Feminist Majority Foundation, explains more about the situation of women in Afghanistan, describing how women are not allowed to see male doctors nor go to medical school themselves, which has created a healthcare void. A man asks Khader if changes could happen at a domestic level; Khader replies that since honor crimes happen at a domestic level, there needs to be an institutional level of protection to enforce laws. After two more questions, Perlin discusses reparations for victims. Another woman asks about honor issues within the United States and comments that honor crimes need to be included within national legislation. Khader responds international laws should be put in place in order to help guide individual countries' legislation. Nainer concludes by thanking everyone for attending.
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3097 E008920 2-4 December 1999
[3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom) strategic meeting/ Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat, part 1],
The first 20 minutes of the videotape contains footage of a strategic meeting at the 3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court in December 1999. In a conference room, a number of women sit at tables and discuss the status of the ICC and how best to communicate their list of the concerns with delegates of the ICC. The meeting is chaired by Vahida Nainar. The rest of the videotape contains first part of footage of the Women's Caucus Sag Harbor Retreat. Eleanor Conda speaks to a group seated around a table and poses questions about the needs of women's groups and what tools should be developed. She then leads a brainstorming session in which members of the group make suggestions about the services that women need, the mechanisms to meet those needs, and tools. She writes on a poster that fills with ideas. Ramini Muttettugawa relates her experience in Sri Lanka, and the difficulties of training people in humanitarian law.
box folder
3101 E008924 14 March 2000
4th Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom) panel, part 1,
This is the first part of footage from a panel on the issue of crimes against humanity and witness protection issues hosted by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice during the March 2000 4th Preparatory Commission Meeting for the International Criminal Court (ICC) at UN Headquarters in New York. The panel discussed developments in the crimes against humanity negotiations, the need for appropriate provisions in the rules of procedure and evidence, and issues of concern to women victims and witnesses of sexual violence. Teresa Ulloa, a lawyer from Mexico who has worked on victim access and participation issues in the domestic court system, introduces the commission and welcomes people to the meeting. [Descriptions of presentations below are adapted from summary on WCGJ website] Madeleine Rees, of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, addresses the issue of the increased threshold for crimes against humanity in light of the non-derogation principle for jus cogens crimes. Jus cogens connotes a category of crimes for which there is no acceptable defense or excuse for their commission, meaning they are non-derogable. Examples of jus cogens crimes are slavery, torture and genocide. Rees analyzed the development in the ICC negotiations within the context of international human rights law and humanitarian law and found such language to be highly questionable and problematic in relationship to accepted norms. Gabriela Mischkowski, a co-founder of Medica Mondiale, a crisis center founded in 1992 to assist the survivors of sexual violence and atrocities occurring in the Former Yugoslavia, discusses the negative impact participating in the criminal justice process can have on victims of sexual violence. This can take the form of re-traumatization and cultural and personal humiliation. For any justice process to be effective, it must rely on survivors and witnesses. According to Mischkowski, the process of justice itself must be more sensitive to and empowering of survivors and witnesses, especially survivors of sexual violence. In addition to contributing to a more profound sense of justice and faith in the justice process, a more gender sensitive and integrated approach would also have the effect of encouraging victims to come forward and participate in the justice process. Francoise Ngendahayo, the Advisor on Gender Issues and Assistance to Victims at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, also addresses the needs of victims and witnesses in the justice process. She echoes many of the points made by Mischkowski and compared the similarities to the Rwanda experience. She also points out some of the differences to illustrate the need for flexibility within such tribunals to accommodate the needs and concerns of survivors in different cultural settings. Ngendahayo also stresses the need for counseling of survivors and assistance while recalling events that can reproduce the effects of trauma.
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3102 E008942 4 December 2000
[4th Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom) panel, part 2],
This is the second part of the footage from a panel on the issue of crimes against humanity and witness protection issues hosted by the Women's Caucus for Gender Justice during the March 2000 4th Preparatory Commission Meeting for the International Criminal Court (ICC) at UN Headquarters in New York. The panel addressed development in the crimes against humanity negotiations, the need for appropriate provisions in the rules of procedure and evidence, and issues of concern to women victims and witnesses of sexual violence. It begins with the continuation of the presentation by Francoise Ngendahayo, the Advisor on Gender Issues and Assistance to Victims at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. She addresses the lack of sensitivity toward the culture of women victims of the Rwanda genocide. She discusses her experience during an earlier visit to Rwanda where she saw how women's trauma were dismissed. She explains that there must be a balance so that justice does not turn into revenge. She concludes that a lack of victim participation in the courts has led to problems and that the ICC must work to avoid such issues in the future. Next the floor is opened for questions. A man poses a question to Madeleine Rees regarding her speech on the Secretary General [which is not on this tape]; Rees suggests that the NGOs approach the Secretary General and High Commissioner to get advice in writing on meeting the established standards. Next a woman working in the Office of the Prosecutor for the Rwanda Tribunal speaks about the historical exclusion of gender issues in courts. A woman responds that the achievement of listing rape explicitly is important, but raises the concern that the separation of rape from other forms of torture may lead to courts not giving the crime the gravitas it deserves. Rees states that she worries that the treatment of women in tribunals will be seen as negligible. Another woman from Rwanda makes comments in French. Ngendahayo translates: if women's trauma is not treated, they will never be able to participate. Teresa Ulloa thanks the audience for their participation. The next portion of the footage is an interview with Madeleine Rees, a representative from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, inside a conference room. She describes the significance of the ICC, stating that it is the first attempt that such an undertaking. She notes that this is an opportunity for women to push for changes in domestic legislation; many countries do not have accurate or adequate criminal codes. Following is an interview Gabriela Mischkowski outdoors. She speaks about how the ICC will influence Germany, mentioning that it may help refugees or migrants. She then describes how the German Parliament has begun the ratification process, which she believes will be passed successfully. She does note that despite the government's support of the ICC, the public appears to be unaware of it. She concludes that while the ICC has the ability to give women's voices a chance to be heard, there is a danger that women will not want to testify. The video ends with exterior shots of the UN building from various angles.
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3229 E008979 4 December 2000
[5th Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom), NGO Coalition meeting],
Footage from a meeting of the NGO Coalition, an umbrella group of some 800 organizations from around the world, at the 5th Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court in June 2000. There are short interviews with participants prior to the start of the meeting. The audio is very poor. Dr. Ahmed Ziauddin from Brussels Catholic University, and Director of the Bangladesh Center for Genocide Studies, and the Convener of the Asian Network for the International Criminal Court (ANICC) explains the work he does for the ICC in relation to genocide. He discusses his concerns with the new statute, especially the American position on the ICC. He also talks about the Bangladesh government's support of the ICC; it is likely to ratify it soon. He also discusses the responses of various countries to the ICC, including the need to strengthen the Indian coalition. He talks about the work of the NGO Coalition. Next there is an interview with Dorothea Beane, a professor of law at Stetson University and a non-governmental observer from the National Bar Association. One of their purposes to analyze the issues and inform the bar association membership about the ICC process. She discusses the American response to the ICC, stating that the coalition is working to educate the professional bar associations so that people can make their own decisions, which may differ from the government's position. She states that there needs to be more internal debate, and different approaches may also be needed to help end brutality across the world. She concludes that the US military influences the government too much and that more voices need to be heard. The next interview is with Felix Ronkes Agerbeek, a member of European Law Student Association (ELSA). ELSA has been involved in the ICC and the CICC since the beginning of the negotiations in 1995. He explains that they are monitoring the Prepcom sessions and provide legal assistance to the CICC. He states that he is impressed with the coalition and feels that they are making progress. He describes the future plans of ELSA. People begin to the enter the room for the start of the meeting. An unnamed asks about the status of recent legislative decisions and voicing disappointment. Discussion begins about voting. A woman then talks about a ruling. After more discussion, the tape skips to later in the meeting, where questions about voting continue. A man comments that the coalition needs to approach delegations to ascertain how they will vote. More members voice their confusion and disappointment of the ruling. Plans to continue conversations in the NGO coalition are discussed, and there is a call for people to continue working toward their goals and not to give up. The meeting closes with some administrative messages.
II. WCGJ Retreat in Sag Harbor, NY, 1999
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3097 E008920 2-4 December 1999
Video 1: [3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court (ICC Prepcom) strategic meeting/ Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat, part 1],
The first 20 minutes of the videotape contains footage of a strategic meeting at the 3rd Preparatory Commission of the International Criminal Court in December 1999. In a conference room, a number of women sit at tables and discuss the status of the ICC and how best to communicate their list of the concerns with delegates of the ICC. The meeting is chaired by Vahida Nainar. The rest of the videotape contains first part of footage of the Women's Caucus Sag Harbor Retreat. Eleanor Conda speaks to a group seated around a table and poses questions about the needs of women's groups and what tools should be developed. She then leads a brainstorming session in which members of the group make suggestions about the services that women need, the mechanisms to meet those needs, and tools. She writes on a poster that fills with ideas. Ramini Muttettugawa relates her experience in Sri Lanka, and the difficulties of training people in humanitarian law.
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3098 E008921 4 December 1999
[Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat, part 2],
Second part of footage from the Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat in 1999 exploring issues of awareness about the gendered nature and limitations of international criminal justice. Pam Spees writes on the whiteboard as Some de Epie-Eyoh summarizes previous discussions and states that the purpose of the module is to raise awareness on the gendered nature and limitations in international criminal justice. The group discusses how to ensure integration of gender in legislation, and about the issues involved with using the western paradigm of women's rights when in other countries. Eleanor Condo asks participants to share any potential regional events where trainings could take place. A few members of the group talk about upcoming events. The footage ends with the women introducing themselves for the camera: Gabriela Mischkowski from Germany, Ramini Muttettugawa from Sri Lanka, Tulika Srivastava from India, Miho Tsuiji from Japan, Rhonda Copelon from New York, Marina Meshki from Georgia, Doris Mpoumou from Congo-Brazzaville, Rashida Manjoo from South Africa, Some de Epie-Eyoh from Cameroon, Pam Spees from the United States, Ana Elena Obando from Costa Rica, Alda Facio from Costa Rica, Eleanor Conda from the Philippines.
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3099 E008922 15 December 1999
[Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat, part 3, including interviews with Alda Facio, Marina Meshki, and Tulika Srivastava],
Third part of footage from the Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat in 1999. There is a discussion about the preparation of a training manual. Rashida Manjoo describes a multimedia approach to disseminate information about violence against women, used during a government-sponsored campaign in South Africa. The group talks about the primary audiences of the manual and what content it should include. The footage changes to black and white. Pam Spees describes a training video she saw that was designed to assure people appearing witnesses in court that they will be safe, but featured only men. The video returns to color as Eleanor Conda summarizes the day's discussions. Videotape cuts to interviews with Alda Facio, Marina Meshki, and Tulika Srivastava. Alda Facio, from the UN Latin American Institute for Crime Prevention, talks about her history of work on feminist issues. She was one of the founders of the Women's Caucus. She talks about the challenges of lobbying for a better ICC. Marina Meshki, head of the Women's Study Group at the Georgian Lawyers Association, talks about how she became involved in the ICC process, and the importance of having crimes against women included in the statute. After b-roll of Women's Caucus members preparing and eating dinner (footage is dark), Tulika Srivastava talks about a case she is involved in, in which a women's organization in Uttar Pradesh is being persecuted for trying to help a woman and her children escape sexual abuse by her husband.
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3100 E008923 4 December 1999
[Women's Caucus Sag Harbor retreat, part 4, including continuation of interview with Tulika Srivastava],
Continuation of an interview with Tulika Srivastava, a human rights lawyer from India who describes what motivated her to work for the establishment of an International Criminal Court and for women's issues in India. She explains how cultural pressure makes it difficult for women to report sexual crimes, as many believe that by discussing such topics in public is "dirty." She relates a story in which a girl who was sexual abused had to fight with a police officer to force him to listen to her. Srivastava then talks about why she became involved in the ICC process. She is interested in and excited about the ICC's focus on justice for victims. She says that the ICC can be a tool to raise domestic standards at home. Footage continues with Srivastava singing a song in Hindi to the group of women at the retreat. She explains that it is a song about mobilizing women to change the world. There is more singing and informal discussion about protest songs used as rally calls. Another woman talks about people singing "We Shall Overcome," and the group begins to sing it. The woman sitting next to Srivastava sings a song from the 1960s written to encourage women to participate in the freedom fight. The second part of the the video features footage from another meeting at the Sag Harbor retreat. Ana Elena Obando stands in front of a whiteboard and leads a session on "Module on Victims." She explains the work they have done so for on the module on victims' rights. Discussion begins on the participation of victims and the group leader agrees that they need to ensure transparency. Next, the women discuss their objective of developing understanding on gender dimensions of international crimes. A woman cautions that care must be taken in the choice of words in the manual.
III. Interview and b-roll footage, 2000
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3214 E008976 8 April 2000
[Interviews with Françoise Ngendahayo, Judge Navanetham Pillay, and Florence Mukamugema on the ICTR],
Interview with Françoise Ngendahayo, Advisor on Gender Issues and Assistance to Victims at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). The interview takes place outside, and there is a lot of background noise. Ngendahayo explains her role in the tribunal and how it started after women's groups complained about the lack of sensitivity towards Rwandan women victims and witnesses. She talks about "gender gaps" in the provision of legal guidance and information to victims, in the participation of victims in the process, and in rehabilitation and support for victims during the hearings. She has also learned about other factors that were preventing women from testifying about sexual violence, such as cultural traditions and household responsibilities. Ngendahayo explains that they have tried to address these gaps at the investigative and administrative levels at the tribunal. She talks about how the ICTR has contributed to the ICC through the lessons learned about gender sensitivity. Ngendahayo reiterates the need for gender sensitivity and accommodating measures through an anecdote about a woman who was living in the house of the person who killed her husband and raped her sister and daughter. The woman asked where she would live if she were to testify against the perpetrator. Ngendahayo also recounts other instances where women witnesses were willing to testify but faced barriers such as needing to work or HIV-related illness. She then talks about the five women from Taba who came to testify in Jean-Paul Akayesu's case. Ngendahayo says that she went to visit the women after they had testified and told them that Akayesu had been sentenced to life; the women were happy. Ngendahayo then talks about the support she has received from the Women's Caucus, and the importance of women's solidarity. Next, there is an interview with Navanetham Pillay, Judge President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. She says that after the first two years of the tribunal and twenty-one indictments, there were no counts of rape or sexual violence. This absence suggested to many women that investigators were not taking these crimes as seriously as killings or looting. Then, during Akayesu's trial, the judges realized that the victims were continually testifying to rape and sexual violence. The charges were amended, leading to the first historical conviction of rape as genocide. Pillay states that this conviction never would have happened without the courage of the women of Rwanda to testify. It is a precedent that can now be developed further. Pillay says that as they heard the testimonies, the judges realized that the definitions of rape used in national jurisdictions did not apply in war crimes situations, as women's experiences differed from these archaic definitions. In the Akayesu case, they developed a new definition of rape as the physical invasion of a sexual nature of a person under coercive circumstances. This new definition has already been used in two other cases. Pillay talks about the work of victims and witness protection units, such as relocation. She mentions other considerations like using pseudonyms, giving evidence behind curtains, being transported secretly, and safe houses. Nonetheless, Pillay empathizes with what women are saying about the lack of representation and access to justice for witnesses and survivors at the tribunals. This has been remedied in the ICC Statute. Pillay clarifies that women must testify in front on the accused, and that there is a balance between the protection of the testifier and the rights of the accused. Pillay discusses the importance of a gender balance within the court. Women need to occupy decision-making positions within the tribunal and in investigation. Finally, she talks about the incremental development from the tribunals to the ICC. Next is interview with Florence Mukamugema, who works at the National University of Rwanda and is a MA candidate in Human Rights and Democratization at the University of Pretoria. She discusses the ICTR and the importance of including rape as genocide, as it empowers women survivors by defining and defending their rights. She asserts the rape is one of the most inhuman acts, and that the ICC needs to emphasize its punishability.
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3114 E008981 8 June 2000
[Panel with Yayori Matsui / Interview with Bill Pace on the ICC],
Footage from a panel of a presentation by activist Yayori Matsui, explaining how she became involved with the comfort women issue. She explains that she organized a campaign against Japanese sex tours to Korea 1970s, after she and other Japanese women heard about them from Korean women. She states that she regrets that she did not do more then, and adds that the women's movement is now stronger. She asserts that addressing serious violations of human rights requires focus on three areas: investigation and truth-finding, compensation for the victims, and punishment for perpetrators. She describes the problems that victims of war crimes have had with the Japanese courts in these areas. She talks about how the Korean comfort women were denied justice by the Japanese courts and that the war crimes have been covered up by the government. She compares this to the German courts, which have prosecuted war criminals. She then explains the purpose of the tribunal they are preparing, which involves Japan and six affected countries. The tribunal will prosecute individual criminal responsibility and state responsibility for crimes committed during the war, and also post-war violations of survivors' human rights. She continues by describing how they are organizing the comfort women to fight as a united front against the Japanese government. Questions from the audience follow, with responses from various panelists. A man asks about the effect of the splintering of the human rights movement. Next a woman comments that there is an ongoing demonstration against the Japanese government. The second portion of footage is an interview with Bill Pace, Executive Director of the Coalition for the Creation of an International Criminal Court, who describes the genesis of the coalition, its goals and the impediments that it faces in promoting the ratification of the court. He discusses his involvement with the Women's Caucus, mentioning the difficulty he faced in forming a coalition due to the enormous pressure for preparing for the ICC. He also talks about the institution of war: rather than being simply between combatants, it involves and hurts a huge portion of civilians. He continues by discussing the Geneva Conventions and the historic views of courts to not include gender specifically. The creation of this ICC will end the crimes against humanity that have been plaguing civilization.
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3206 E008974 20-29 June 2000
Video 1: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 2: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 3: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 4: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
The first part of the video is an interview with Indai Sajor, Executive Director of Asian Centre for Women's Human Rights (ASCENT). She talks about the potential of the ICC to address the issues of survivors and victims of war and armed conflict. She hopes that domestic laws will reform on the basis of ICC standards to address crimes such as genocide on a national level. She notes that while the women's rights movement is stronger now and can encourage women victims to speak out, the national and international justice systems are not sensitive enough to address their violations and give them justice. She says that the ICC is still becoming established, so national courts must quickly adapt to serve the millions of victims of war and violence. She explains that the human rights movement must find creative ways to motivate domestic governments and to educate the public about gender-based persecution. Finally, she talks about the need for mechanisms to protect witnesses and victims, citing the example of the witness and victim protection unit in Indonesia. The second part is footage of Women's Caucus members talking and using computers outside a conference room at the UN. There are then shots of people sitting at tables in a conference room, walking through a hallway, and eating at a cafeteria. Next is footage of the Women's Caucus office, including shots of a hand-drawn comic and some footage where the cameraperson plays with camera settings. The video continues with more shots in a hallway where Women's Caucus members wearing t-shirts reading "Gender Justice NOW!" are gathered, then inside a large hall where an event is about to take place. The third portion of the tape is an interview with Donald Piragoff, from the Department of Justice Canada. Piragoff talks about how the ICC statute has defined gender violence and how it will take the needs of victims into consideration. He explains the concept of complementarity, which is the principle that states have the right to prosecute first; the ICC will only step in if courts refuse or are unable to try the crimes. He says that the primary obligation for prosecution should be with the states, and talks about how Canada has passed legislation that goes beyond the Rome Statute. The interview is followed by b-roll of the interviewer walking with Piragoff.
E008974 20-29 June 2000
Video 1: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 2: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 3: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
Video 4: [Interview with Indai Sajor / Women's Caucus b-roll / Interview with Donald Piragoff],
The first part of the video is an interview with Indai Sajor, Executive Director of Asian Centre for Women's Human Rights (ASCENT). She talks about the potential of the ICC to address the issues of survivors and victims of war and armed conflict. She hopes that domestic laws will reform on the basis of ICC standards to address crimes such as genocide on a national level. She notes that while the women's rights movement is stronger now and can encourage women victims to speak out, the national and international justice systems are not sensitive enough to address their violations and give them justice. She says that the ICC is still becoming established, so national courts must quickly adapt to serve the millions of victims of war and violence. She explains that the human rights movement must find creative ways to motivate domestic governments and to educate the public about gender-based persecution. Finally, she talks about the need for mechanisms to protect witnesses and victims, citing the example of the witness and victim protection unit in Indonesia. The second part is footage of Women's Caucus members talking and using computers outside a conference room at the UN. There are then shots of people sitting at tables in a conference room, walking through a hallway, and eating at a cafeteria. Next is footage of the Women's Caucus office, including shots of a hand-drawn comic and some footage where the cameraperson plays with camera settings. The video continues with more shots in a hallway where Women's Caucus members wearing t-shirts reading "Gender Justice NOW!" are gathered, then inside a large hall where an event is about to take place. The third portion of the tape is an interview with Donald Piragoff, from the Department of Justice Canada. Piragoff talks about how the ICC statute has defined gender violence and how it will take the needs of victims into consideration. He explains the concept of complementarity, which is the principle that states have the right to prosecute first; the ICC will only step in if courts refuse or are unable to try the crimes. He says that the primary obligation for prosecution should be with the states, and talks about how Canada has passed legislation that goes beyond the Rome Statute. The interview is followed by b-roll of the interviewer walking with Piragoff.
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3112 E008970 14-15 August 2000
Video 1: [Interviews with Salud y Desarrollo Comunitario staff, indigenous woman in Pico, and woman with abusive father],
Video 2: [Interviews with Salud y Desarrollo Comunitario staff, indigenous woman in Pico, and woman with abusive father],
Video 3: [Interviews with Salud y Desarrollo Comunitario staff, indigenous woman in Pico, and woman with abusive father],
Footage begins with Monica Angeles, Martha Figueroa, and Margaret Crehan in an apartment, then driving in a car. Various blurred shots of landscape shot out the window. In the car, they discuss the nature of the Women's Caucus, its training with women, the ways in which it has been beneficial, and the issues important to the organization. Later they discuss a specific murder case that they are working on. B-roll of the group visiting a waterfall, and then a rural community with houses, animals, including a monkey, dogs and roosters. Interview with a staff person from the organization Salud y Desarrollo Comunitario (SADEC). He talks about his organization, the specific women's issues they work on, and a training they held on providing medical support. He talks about the importance of collaboration, and how it helps him better understand the issues affecting women. He says that putting groups in contact with each other allows women to find strength in each other. As the interview comes to the close, he gives verbal consent for the footage to be used, and Monica Angeles summarizes the interview in English. Next is more shaky footage shot from a moving car, and outside a rural home. There is an interview with a woman named Alberta Estrada [?] standing outside her home in Pico. She talks about issues facing women in Chiapas, and how indigenous women face greater abuse than Mestizo women. She talks about the need for unity among all women to get justice for the community. She also talks about sexual abuse and prostitution. After the interview, Monica Angeles summarizes what was said in English. There is some b-roll of Alberta with her family, her home, their animals. Next, there is an interview with a woman named Andrea Torres Cruz [?]. Her mother was killed by her father. Her father also owned a bar, and had prostitutes there. Andrea turned her father in to the authorities, and he was taken away. She does not believe there will be justice, however, because police are known to abuse their own spouses. She fears that when her father returns, she will be forced off the land or possibly killed like her mother. After the interview, Monica Angeles summarizes in English.
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7226 E008947 16 August 2000
[Interview with Sara Santiz Gomez, victim of forced sterilization in Chiapas, part 2]
Continuation of interview with Sara Santiz Gomez, a woman who was sterilized by a doctor at a state-run hospital without her knowledge in August 1999. She speaks in Tzeltal, which is translated into Spanish by her husband, and then in English by Monica Angeles. Sara and her husband were worried about the operation and the complications that followed after the surgery. The doctors gave her prescription from a private pharmacy to get the medicine, which was very expensive. The interview is moved indoors, where Sara is seated with her family. She talks about how her choice to have children was taken away, and discuss how difficulty it has been to try to get justice; the doctor is still practicing. They also went to a ministry, who questioned why the family wanted more children. She says that she continues to fight because she knows that it is right, and that she has documentation to prove it. The video ends with a close-ups of official documents.
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3111 E008950 18-19 August 2000
Video 1: [NGO forum on elections in Chiapas]
Video 2: [NGO forum on elections in Chiapas]
Video 3: [NGO forum on elections in Chiapas]
Footage of an NGO meeting. Rigoberta Menchu and others, including Martha Figueroa, sit around a table discussing issues [not logged or translated]. At the end of the video, Monica Angeles and others are relaxing in an apartment. Margaret Crehan explains from behind the camera how shoot video in low-lighting to create an effect.
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3205 E008973 20 August 2000
[Interviews and b-roll regarding Acteal massacre]
Footage of an unidentified man describing the Acteal massacre of December 22, 1997 while pointing out the sites where people fled and hid. He speaks in Spanish, while Monica Angeles translates into English, off camera. He talks about how people tried to flee, but were caught and killed. He points to a mound where his wife and daughter died. He says he was trapped under a pile of corpses. He says that people then started running into the mountains. They only stopped shooting when they ran out of bullets. He explains that people are buried in the houses. Blurry shots of the sites that the man pointed out. Next, another unidentified man shows a memorial wall with photographs of the dead and a cross. There are flowers and candles on the floor. The man points to a photos of Juana Vázquez Luna and Susana Jiménez Pérez, who were killed in the Acteal massacre. The man explains to Monica Angeles that the bodies are buried under the floor. Various CU of an epitaph plaque which is hung on the wall with the photographs, with CU on the names of the victims. Various pan and tilts shots of the wall. Footage then cuts to blurry, shaky shots of the interior of a wooden structure, possibly a church, with altars and statues. Footage cuts to various exterior LS from the top of a hill of the rural community, then various shots of the sculpture, Columna de la Infamia (Pillar of Shame) by artist Jens Galschiot, to honor and remember victims of the massacre. CU of the explanatory panels in Spanish and English at the base of the sculpture.
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3110 E008949 21 August 2000
[Interviews and b-roll regarding Acteal massacre]
Martha Figueroa and Monica Angeles get into a taxi. Cut to shots from exterior of a school. Children and their parents mill around the entrance. Martha and a boy walk from the school together. There is an interview with a woman, followed by an interview with a teenaged girl about being forced to undress and undergo a medical examination. The girl explains that while she was taking care of her cousins, the police approached her and her mother, then took them away to jail in a truck. When they got to a jail, a doctor made them undress so she could be examined. The doctor said that if they did not undress, four other soldiers would come in. The girl was then taken to juvenile hall, where she was given a uniform and stayed until the next day.
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3109 E008948 [Interview with anonymous young woman on military violations against women], 22 August 2000
This video is restricted. An interview with a young woman who talks about violations by the military against women, sexual violence, and her involvement with the Zapatistas [not translated or logged]. At the end of the interview, the interviewer Monica notes that the interviewee's name, face, and voice, should not be used. B-roll of a poster and dolls in the woman's home.
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3113 E008971 23 August 2000
[Interviews and b-roll regarding Acteal massacre]
Interview with Guadalupe Cardenas, director of Grupos de Mujeres, San Cristóbal de las Casas, on rape by police (not logged or translated).
E008971 28 August 2000
[Interviews and b-roll regarding Acteal massacre]
The first part of this video is footage of Women's Caucus staff setting up and testing the camera equipment in the office, and chatting with each other. The second part of the video is an interview with Medard Rwelamira, head of the policy unit in the South African Ministry of Justice, head of the South African delegation to the ICC, and vice-chair of UN Preparatory Commission of the ICC. He speaks on the topic of South Africa's involvement with the ICC and its current progress of implementing legislation on the national level that meets the international statute. Rwelamira summarizes the importance of the ICC, stating that when the statute comes into existence, it will help Africa cope with the atrocities that occurred in recent decades - such as Rwanda, Burundi, and Somalia. The ratification and implementation of the statute would provide a basis for states to deal with problems. He continues with an explanation about the process of transforming international standards to domestic laws, mentioning that in South Africa, they have created and submitted legislation to the government for ratification. He continues to discuss what requirements were taken into consideration in the creation of the legislation. The legislation will include offenses as defined in the statute. It will also include other provisions that reflect the essence of the statute and even go beyond it. The third portion consists of night b-roll of the ocean and a hotel.
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3103 E008944 August 2000
Video 1: [Interviews with Zieba Shorish-Shamley and Rashida Manjoo],
Video 2: [Interviews with Zieba Shorish-Shamley and Rashida Manjoo],
Video 3: [Interviews with Zieba Shorish-Shamley and Rashida Manjoo],
The Women's Caucus's for Gender Justice, New York interviews two human rights legal experts. Zieba Shorish-Shamley, Director of Women's Alliance for Peace and Human Rights in Afghanistan, who speaks about war crimes committed by the Taliban, and the status of women in Afghanistan. She says that women in Afghanistan are prisoners in their home, denied the most basic of human rights. She talks about the forced marriages and prostitution, ethnic cleansing, and abductions which have happened since the Taliban has come into power. She states that the ICC will be able to help by giving people a place to seek redress, as the country has no acceptable court of its own. She asserts that the Taliban's actions are committing atrocities in the name of religion, but that their actions are essentially un-Islamic. She concludes with a rally for all women to join the fight for freedom, as what is happening in Afghanistan to women could happen anywhere. Rashida Manjoo of South Africa talks about the influence that the ICC concepts of individual accountability and responsibility will have on domestic policy in South Africa, and legislation to protect victims and witnesses.
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3107 E008946 August 2000
Video 1: Interview and b-roll with Martha Figueroa, part 1],
Video 2: Interview and b-roll with Martha Figueroa, part 1],
Footage begins with a group of people including Martha Figueroa and Guadalupe Cardenas clustered around a desk looking at photographs in an office. There is a sign that says 1989-2000 Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristóbal COLEM, and other b-roll of the office interior and exterior. There are CU shots of various newspaper headlines about sexual violence and posters from events. Next there is an interview with Martha Figueroa, a lawyer from the women's rights group, Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristóbal in Chiapas. She discusses the abuses that indigenous women in the region face, including domestic abuse; sexual violence linked to armed conflict; abduction, rape, and subsequent forced marriage; trafficking and prostitution; torture by police and government officials. She talks about how indigenous people are being disappeared and marginalized due to poor health services other than sterilization and contraceptives, and the officials' unwillingness to help women who report crimes. She details the horrors of the Acteal massacre in which paramilitaries killed 45 villagers, primarily of women and children, who were gathered in the village church. She explains how the attack was directed at indigenous people and, in particular, women. She describes the case of Catarina Menendez-Paciencia, a woman who suffered so many injuries that she cannot work or marry.
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7225 E008951 August 2000
Video 1: [Interview with Martha Figueroa, part 2 / Interview with Guadalupe Cardenas],
Video 2: [Interview with Martha Figueroa, part 2 / Interview with Guadalupe Cardenas],
Second part of interview with Martha Figueroa, a lawyer from the women's rights group, Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristóbal in Chiapas, Mexico. Figueroa discusses the Mexican judicial system and how it deals with crimes against women and indigenous communities. In the case of the Acteal massacre, Figueroa says that women's testimonies were not taken seriously, and that survivors were treated only as witnesses rather than victims. She states that government and police were aware of the massacre but did not intervene, thus perpetrating the genocide of the indigenous population. She calls on international organizations like the ICC to respond effectively, and to recognize gender based crimes. She says that the common denominator in the cases of violence against women in Chiapas is lack of access to justice. She then speaks specifically about the case of Sara Santiz, an indigenous woman who was unknowingly sterilized against her will during a hospital visit. B-roll of Martha Figueroa in the office follows. Video cuts to an interview with Guadalupe Cárdenas, coordinator of the Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristóbal, set in a restaurant (not logged or translated).
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3108 E008982 August 2000
Video 1: [Meeting with women in Pico de Oro, Chiapas / Interview with Sara Santiz Gomez, victim of forced sterilization in Chiapas, part 1],
Video 2: [Meeting with women in Pico de Oro, Chiapas / Interview with Sara Santiz Gomez, victim of forced sterilization in Chiapas, part 1],
Video 3: [Meeting with women in Pico de Oro, Chiapas / Interview with Sara Santiz Gomez, victim of forced sterilization in Chiapas, part 1],
Footage from a meeting with a group of women in a large room in Pico de Oro, Chiapas, led by Martha Figueroa, a lawyer from a Women's Rights group, Grupo de Mujeres de San Cristobal. Before the meeting starts, the camera pans around the room, focusing on a Comision de Derechos Humanos poster, a newspaper article about a Caesarian birth performed with a knife, and on Figueroa preparing. Figueroa then stands and speaks on issues including women's rights, gender inequality, domestic abuse, alcoholism, and education. After some time, someone behind the camera begins translating her presentation into English. There is a CU of a pile of papers that reads "Encuentro reclamo de las mujeres ante la violencia, la impunidad y la guerra en Chiapas'" and to a letter addressed to all the women of Chiapas, inviting them to participate. Footage cuts to various incidental b-roll shots, including shots of Monica Angeles, Margaret Crehan, and Figueroa touring Mayan ruins and bathing in a waterfall. Cut to interior of a wooden house with Figueroa speaking to a man with his daughter. A baby cries in a hammock. Outside the house, a ELS as the man's wife, Sara Santiz Gomez, approaches carrying wood. There are then shots inside the house with the entire family. The interview with Sara Santiz Gomez begins outside the house. She speaks in Tzeltal, which is translated into Spanish by her husband, off-screen. She talks about how, in August 1999, she went to a state-fun hospital to give birth to her child. The doctor performed a Caesarean operation under the pretext that it was medically necessary. Later, when she went to another hospital run by the nuns for severe health problems, she discovered she had been sterilized by the doctor at the state-run hospital.
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3210 E008975 18 September 2000
Video 1: [Interview with Rhonda Copelon on the Rome Statute and gender-based crimes],
Video 2: [Interview with Rhonda Copelon on the Rome Statute and gender-based crimes],
The video begins with the crew making adjustments to the camera. Interview with Rhonda Copelon, Director of International Women's Human Rights Clinic, City University of New York Law School. There are audio problems throughout. Copelon explains that naming the crimes of sexual and reproductive violence in the ICC Statute is important because it recognizes the treatment of comfort women. The ICC list is broad and eliminates ambiguity around whether sexual and reproductive violence are grave enough to be prosecuted as war crimes or crimes against humanity. She states that the list leaves no doubt that sexual crimes are crimes of violence, rather than only crimes against honor or dignity. The statute also integrates sexual and reproductive crimes as forms of traditionally recognized crimes like torture, genocide, and enslavement. This keeps these crimes from being thought of as "women's" issues, and subsequently seen as less important. Following is a second take of Copelon answering the same question. The interview then continues with Copelon discussing the Rome Statute's recognition of gender as a basis of persecution. This allows crimes such as gender apartheid in Afghanistan to fall under the Rome Statute. She also discusses how the Women's Caucus has worked to ensure that the ICC avoids errors of the past in regards to respect for victims. There are variety of provisions, such as providing support and protection for victims. Copelon then does another take of the same statement. Copelon states that an underlying principle that the Women's Caucus advocated for was that women and men should be fairly represented among the ICC's judges and prosecutors, and that there should be judges and prosecutors with gender expertise. Copelon states that another important and innovative aspect of the Rome Statute is the recognition that victims have the right to participate in the proceedings. The Statute also includes a broad recognition of the right of reparation, as well as guarantees about the admissibility of testimony and evidence in sexual violence cases. Copelon talks about the limitations of the ICC. It has no retroactive jurisdiction. It will be difficult to maintain the court's independence. Women's groups will also need to pressure the Court to make sure crimes against women are included. She notes that the creation of the ICC is not simply the creation of a court; it is the establishment of codes, processes, and principles that can serve as a norm for justice everywhere. Copelon also states that people with gender sensitivity need to be nominated to serve on the court and that gender training should be given to teach sensitivity. After some more discussion, she repeats the first portion of the interview, including the significance of listing the crimes. She also asserts the importance of viewing rape as a form of torture. There are then further takes of Copelon discussion the court's limitations.
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3116 E008972 [Post-production of Women's Caucus video at WITNESS], 24 September 2000
This video is restricted. The first part of the video takes place at WITNESS: Women's Caucus staff Miho Tsuiji, Margaret Crehan, Pam Spees, and Laura Campagna joke about the editing process as they watch and log footage. Crehan explains that is the first day of the editing process and sarcastically states that she is looking forward to the long two weeks ahead. More shots of Women's Caucus staff working in the office follow, including shots of Shabana Azmi recording the English narration for If Hope Were Enough. Next are various CU shots of documents from the United Nations' General Assembly's World Conference on Human Rights, dated 12 July 1993, spread out on a table. Documents include articles on crimes against humanity and war crimes. There are spoken comments about how to set up the shot.

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