This report considers governance issues in Brazil and China and the effects they have had on the development of the juvenile justice systems in both countries. It describes good governance issues which have direct influence on institutional development in both countries. Observations about the investment in the professional development of people on the local level are made. It presents the history of the development of the juvenile justice systems in Brazil and China and describes challenges to current institutional development of the systems. Finally, it provides a comparison of the development of juvenile justice in Brazil and China, including recommendations for addressing the improvement of programs and the delivery of services to delinquent youth.