Chapter One begins with a brief historical overview of Texas's higher education system, which provides context to the long standing problem of low minority participation in higher education. Chapter Two follows with a description of the origins of affirmative action in college and university admissions. Chapter Three examines the legal and legislative challenges to affirmative action policies leading up to the Hopwood decision, which ended affirmative action in university admissions in Texas. Chapter Four examines the 75th Texas Legislature's response to the Hopwood decision and the creation of House Bill 588 (The Top Ten Percent Plan). In Chapter Five we examine the Top Ten Percent Plan's statewide impact and its impact at academically selective higher education institutions. In closing, Chapter Six, argues that affirmative action, the Hopwood decision, and the Top Ten Percent Plan have all diverted attention away from the real challenge to higher education in Texas: rapid population growth and demographic change. Chapter Six describes important demographic projections and their impact on the state's social and economic future and discusses the importance of dramatically increasing the number of students from growing minority populations participating and graduating in higher education.