The emergence of bio-terrorism as one of the primary threats facing municipalities in the United States creates emergency management planning needs different from those of either natural disasters or "traditional" terrorism. Chapters One and Two provide the context for this unique planning paradigm addressing historical and essential background information related to the production and use of biological weapons. In Chapter Three the report examined the importance of risk management to effectively and efficiently use financial and other resources to prepare for bio-terrorism. Chapter Four examines the organization structures of response plans already created by the federal government. Chapter Five discusses the role of the public health service in identifying a covert bio-terrorism event. The report concludes with two primary recommendations. First, threat and risk assessment models must be developed, which will require significant direction from the federal government. Second, additional financial resources must focus on the role of the public health system in detecting the occurrence a bio-terrorism event rather than defining a standard response protocol for traditional first responding agencies.