1. Corollas very small, inconspicuous, only slightly exceeding the calyx .....S. agraria

1.Corollas quite large 1-1/2 - 2-1/2 times as long as the calyx (2)

2. Corollas crimson or red .....S. coccinea

2. Corollas blue or pinkish (3)

3. Plants or trans-Pecos S. bigelovii

3. Plants of eastern Texas (4)

4. Stems and leaves densely villous with brown or tawny hairs; rarely collected introduced weed .....S. grahamii

4. Stems and leaves subglabrous to only moderately pubescent with white hairs; native species (5)

5. Leaves at midstem with petioles mostly 2-6 mm long; rhizomatous perennials forming tubers .....S. floridana

5. Leaves at midstem with petioles mostly 10-30 mm long; tap-rooted annuals (6)

6. Stems and foliage glabrous or nearly so; larger leaves with blades elliptical to lanceolate-elliptic .....S. tenuifolia

6. Stems and foliage moderately pilose throughout with spreading hairs ca 1 mm long .....S. drummondii


STACHYS AGRARIA Cham. & Schlecht., Linnaea 5: 100. 1830.
Stachys confusa   Briq.
Stachys umbrosa  Scheele

Eastern U.S.A., extending into eastern Texas; spring flowering.

Relatively delicate, nettle-like plants with very small corollas, which readily marks the species.

Correll and Johnston (1970) did not account for this name in their treatment of the genus for Texas, referring such plants to S. crenata. As noted by Mulligan and Munro (1989), the latter name is poorly described, cannot be typified and its application is moot.

Named for its propensity to occur in fallow fields as a weed.

STACHYS BIGELOVII A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 37. 1872.

Montane regions of Mexico and closely adjacent U.S.A.; summer and fall flowering.

Perennial herbs to 60 cm high having relatively large attractive pink flowers.

Named for J.M. Bigelow (1787-1879) early collector and explorer in the southwestern U.S.A.

STACHYS COCCINEA Ort., Nov. Pl. Descr. Dec. 20. 1797.
Montane regions of Mexico and closely adjacent U.S.A., extending into trans-Pecos Texas, 1800-2200 m; Jun-Sep.

Attractive crimson-flowered, rhizomatous perennial herbs to 1.5 m high; corollas crimson to orange-red.

Named for its crimson corollas.

STACHYS DRUMMONDII Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 551. 1834.

Rather delicate annual or biennial herbs to 80 cm high; corollas blue.

Named for Thomas Drummond (1790-1835) early naturalist from Scotland who first collected the plant in the vicinity of Houston, Texas in 1833.

STACHYS FLORIDANA Shuttlew. ex Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 478. 1846.

Southeastern U.S.A. from North Carolina to Florida and westwards to easternmost Texas where perhaps introduced; flowering all seasons.

Erect perennial herbs, the stems mostly arising from rhizomes or tubers.

According to Nelson (1981), this species shows evidence of having extended its range over much of the southeastern U.S. during the past 50 years or so, mainly through nursery or ornamental greenhouse activites. The tubers are also reportedly eaten as "pickles" over parts of its range, and a closely related Asiatic species, S. affinis, is said to be cultivated for its tubers and given the common name "Chinese artichokes". This is discussed in more detail by Shinners (Castanea 28: 44-46. 1963).

Named for the state of Florida, where first collected.

STACHYS GRAHAMII Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 551. 1834.

Known to Texas by a single introduction to "Turtle Bay Peninsula", Aransas Co. (B. C. Tharp 1405, TEX) where collected in the summer of 1922. Subsequent collections have not been made, although the species is also reportedly introduced elsewhere in the U.S.A. as a waif, nearly always in coastal habitats. Correll and Johnston exclude the taxon from their treatment.

Named for Robert Graham (1819-1845) early collector in Mexico where the species was first collected.

STACHYS TENUIFOLIA Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 100. 1800.
Southeastern U.S.A. westwards to easternmost Texas, Jul-Nov.

Annual herbs to 60 cm high; among Texas species readily distinguished by its nearly glabrous stems and foliage. Nelson (1981) recognized 3 varieties under this taxon; ours belongs to the var. TENUIFOLIA.

Named for its thin leaves, as compared to most other species.

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