(garden cultivars excluded)

1. Leaves relatively broad, those at midstem mostly 3-5 cm wide, 2.5-4.0 times as long as broad (2)

1. Leaves relatively narrow, those at midstem mostly 1-2 cm wide, 4-8 times as long as broad (3)

2. Leaves mostly elliptical, widest at or near the middle; calyces markedly glandular-punctate; southern Texas .....P. correllii

2. Leaves obovate to subtrullate, not usually elliptical; calyces weakly glandular-punctate if at all; easternmost Texas .....P. digitalis

3. Corollas deep lavender to reddish; lobes of sepals ca 3 mm long; midstem leaves with apices mostly broadly acute to rounded; relatively rare species of Jasper, Newton and Orange Counties .....P. longisepala

3. Corollas variously pink (pale pink to pinkish-purple); midstem leaves various; common and widespread over eastern Texas (4)

4. Corollas relatively large, mostly 28-35 mm long, the distance across open lips at full anthesis ca 10 mm (5)

4. Corollas relatively small, mostly 12-22 mm long, the distance across open lips at full anthesis mostly 3-6 mm (6)

5. Midstem leaves mostly oblanceolate, mostly 4-6 mm long, 4-5 times as long as wide .....P. virginiana

5. Midstem leaves mostly linear-lanceolate, mostly 7-12 cm long, 7-12 times as long as wide .....P. angustifolia

6. Calyx tubes mostly 2-3 mm long; corollas mostly 7-17 mm long .....P. intermedia

6. Calyx tubes mostly 3-5 mm long; corollas mostly 18-30 mm long .....P. pulchella


PHYSOSTEGIA ANGUSTIFOLIA Fern., Rhodora 45: 462. 1943.
Physostegia edwardsiana  Shinners

Southcentral and southeastern U.S.A.; mostly calcareous soils in grassy areas; May-Jun.

Shinners, as noted in the above synonymy, recognized plants from the Edwards Plateau regions of central Texas as a distinct species, but Cantino (1982) thought otherwise.

Named for its narrow leaves.

PHYSOSTEGIA CORRELLII (Lundell) Shinners, Rhodora 51: 120. 1949.
Dracocephalum correllii  Lundell

Southcentral U.S.A. and northern Mexico in usually wet calcareous soils; Jun-Sep.

As noted by Cantino (1980), this is an uncommon species, known by relatively few extant populations.

Named for the late Donovan S. Correll, prolific worker on many plant groups and co-author of the Manual of the Flora of Texas (1970).

PHYSOSTEGIA DIGITALIS Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 613. 1898.

Eastern Texas and closely adjacent states; Jun-Jul.

As noted by Cantino (1980), one of the most distinctive species of the genus and "easily recognized by its overall robustness, its large, broadly obovate to elliptic, entire to bluntly toothed leaves ..." Nevertheless it does appear close to the equally robust P. correllii, from which it is largely distinguished by its mostly epunctate leaves and calyces.

Named for its resemblance to the genus Digitalis (Scrophulariaceae).

PHYSOSTEGIA INTERMEDIA (Nutt.) Engelm. & A. Gray, Boston J. Nat. Hist. 5: 257. 1845.

Southcentral U.S.A. from Illinois to Texas; Mar-Jul.

Among Texas species this taxon is readily recognized by its small flowers.

Named for its intermediate appearance to yet two other species, these not named by its author.

PHYSOSTEGIA LONGISEPALA Cantino, Contr. Gray Herb. 211: 67. 1982.

Localized endemic of southwesternmost Louisiana and closely adjacent Texas; May-Jun.

Among Texas species this taxon is most closely related to P. angustifolia and P. pulchella. Cantino in his original description makes a strong case for its recognition, but this needs to be confirmed by field studies in the area concerned.

PHYSOSTEGA PULCHELLA Lundell, Wrightia 2: 4. 1959.

Eastern Texas in mostly calcareous glades and river bottoms; Apr-Jun.

Closely related to P. angustifolia and perhaps not specifically distinct. The two taxa are in need of additional field study.

Named for its beautiful flowers.

PHYSOSTEGIA VIRGINIANA (L.) BENTH., Lab. Gen. et Sp. 504. 1834.
Physostegia nivea  Lundell (cultivar)
Physostegia praemorsa  Shinners
Physostegia serotina  Shinners

Central and eastern U.S.A. and closely adjacent northcentral Mexico; Jun-Oct.

A widespread highly variable species, this compounded by garden cultivars from Europe which escaped here and there making identification difficult. Cantino recognized two morphogeographical infraspecific taxa, a more northeastern var. virginiana and a more southwestern var. ARENARIA Shimek (although he treated these as subspecies; cf Cantino: Rhodora 85: 263. 1983). The P. virginiana  complex is in need of additional field study.

Named for the state of Virginia, from which first described.

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