The origins of the Walter Geology Library, like those of many of the branch libraries at the University of Texas, are clouded by the decentralized nature of the early structure of the University. The Department of Geology (later Geological Sciences, now the Jackson School of Geosciences) began in 1888. Robert T. Hill was invited to Austin by the Regents to start a "School of Geology" with offices in Old Main, where, by 1901, Geology occupied the West end of the Third Floor.
This condition sounds more extreme than it was, since in those days, the Departmental collections worked in cooperation with the University Library, and primarily served the needs of upper division undergraduate and graduate students and faculty, though even in the late 1920's and early 1930's, reports make note of outside users from industry, government and the law. Additionally, it appears that (most) purchasing and cataloging services were provided through the Library. One open question relates to the purchasing code for books, which seems to have been controlled by the Library for many years. Thus, the faculty would gather and determine what they wanted to have acquired, and in most cases, the Library would purchase the materials and provide cataloging for them. In summers, requests for materials from Geology would be handled by staff from the University Library (which, like faculty, also had keys), based on their records.
There was very poor staffing and records coordination, however, and less security. Early reports are filled with laments of the missing or mislaid materials, poor condition of the shelving and record keeping, and inaccurate circulation or collection holdings information. Each Department made Library arrangements that were pleasing to the dominant faculty voices of the time, and not much is known about their decision making. Faculty and graduate students had keys, and materials would come and go without much oversight. Faculty also generally had office collections, many of note, particularly among the paleontologists, and the whole atmosphere appears to have been both casual and frustrating.
W. C. Hogg
The first Geology Building was constructed under the chairmanship and supervision of Fred Bullard for $343,000 and was approximately 50,000 square feet. It was dedicated in the depths of the Depression in 1933, Greene Laroche & Dahl, architects. This attractive building, now named W. C. Hogg, and housing (among other things) the offices of the College of Natural Sciences, was designed with a terra cotta frieze around it and the legend "O Earth, What Changes Hast Thou Seen?". In discussions with Dr. Bullard around 1987, he described the process of laying out the drawings of vertebrate and invertebrate fossils, crystals, and other image panels for the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company in Denver. The panels, he claimed, cost $1.50 each, and he was sent to Denver to approve the molds and first products. He indicated to me that the rail shipping of the panels was more expensive than the art. During the depression, even these small fees seemed quite extravagant. When the "new" building was built in the mid-1960's, the faculty very much wanted to remove the frieze from Hogg and take it to the new building- it was even said that the rather stark rectangular repeats on that building were designed to accommodate the terra cotta panels, which would have been very odd looking indeed, had the effort succeeded.
In any case, in what is now known as Hogg, the Library was in rooms 214 and 218 on the west end, with an area of about 1,750 square feet. The Alcalde from January, 1934 indicates the library has room for "25,000 volumes, although at present vthe department possesses only about half that number." Users report the stacks were closed to undergraduates - others required stack passes - and all materials had to be paged. The librarian had no office. The reading room was seating only- no typewriters, so students had to sit quietly and take notes, and seating capacity is recalled as 20-35 people.
With the move of the department to the Geology Building in 1967, the library more than doubled to 10,000 square feet, with for the first time a dedicated space for the map collection. The building allowed the consolidation of the Bureau of Economic Geology, which took the 5th floor (B-5, later changed to 1-6), and the Library was on the third floor, room 302 A-D, at the West end of the building. Professor Clabaugh, the faculty member in charge of overseeing the design, repeated some of the more successful aspects of the old building- large auditorium classroom, library upstairs, etc., and added more shop and lab space, administrative areas for the Bureau staff, and larger and better faculty and graduate student space, but the building was rather industrial in its appearance. At this time, the library was still closed stacks. Graduate students could request a stacks pass and faculty were entitled to a stacks pass and a key. Keys were finally done away with in the early 1980's, when the opportunity to automate circulation led to tighter control of the collection. This collection had a large reading room on the East side of the building, with large windows, the map collection across the North wall, also with many windows, but the long, narrow space was not ideal for map cabinet layout. Thelma's comment was that the map collection looked rather "ratty" when laid out in the new space, but she was glad to get it better organized and stored.
Librarians and Staff
Early staff included Mrs. Mae Reeder Nelson, Rubie Vaughn, Arno Wendler, George Harris, Fred Goerner, and Sam Field, all pages and stenographers employed by the Department. It appears that there was at one point a librarian named 'Miss Eckert', who was later praised for her early organizational efforts.
Early UT catalogs from 1915 to 1926 chronicle some of this ambiguity from the Libraries side - descriptions of library staff mention a Nina Pauline Stehr, who is the botany/zoology, or botany, geology, zoology, and then botany and zoology librarian, and about whom nothing is known at this writing. In the 1926 catalog, there is mention in the Library Staff list of Mrs. Mae Reeder Nelson, geology librarian, and Mrs. Nelson is the author of the first extant library annual report from February 1926, though it is produced on Departmental stationary, and Mrs. Nelson indicates she is also the Department stenographer.
"THE" Geology Librarian
The University Library assumed control of the Geology collection in 1940 as part of a larger campus reorganization of library services, and Thelma Lynn (later Guion, when she married an instructor in Classics) came in to provide order, control, discipline and planning, as she did in a number of departmental collections on campus, including, it seems, biology (zoology), music, and chemistry. Thelma left for a time to complete her Master's degree in Library Science at Columbia University, and Mrs. Albert E. Sweeney supervised the collection in 1942 and '43, at which point Ms Guion returned and supervised the Geology collection from the Biology Library. She returned to Geology permanently in 1952, stayed through the move to the current building, and was forced to retire for age reasons in August 1972.
There are many stories about Thelma, who introduced herself to me in 1985 as "THE" Geology Librarian. She was known to be a fierce steward of the library, and protector of her "cherubs," as she preferred to call her student assistants. These students were reputed to have included several Phi Beta Kappa's, but this did not save them from having to pick up discarded soft drink bottles for Thelma to cash in for the deposits to add to the library's acquisitions funds.
Dr. Keith Young once told me that he felt his day didn't get off to a good start until he had had an argument with Thelma. This is significant because Thelma's devotion and loyalty to the Department were to have long lasting effects. The strength of the library over the decades has been an outgrowth of Thelma's relationship with several pivotal faculty members. Professors Whitney, Adkins and Sellards, whose initial collecting and scholarship gave early support for strong library collections, gave way to the second and third generations of leadership. These included Sam Ellison, the founding faculty member of the Geology Foundation, Ronald K. DeFord, a strong library supporter both in words and deeds, who was particularly close to Thelma, and Keith Young, long chair of the Geology Library Committee and collection supervisor extraordinaire. Bill Fisher, long head of the Geology Foundation, oversaw huge growth in endowments, and was critical in including library support among his goals. Other involved faculty included Martin Lagoe, Doug Smith, and most recently Chris Bell, who (like Keith Young) also served a term as Chair of the University Library Committee.
Thelma had also a strong impact on students. This was partly due to her close association with Professor DeFord, her stern and frank presence as an information gatekeeper, and the many ways she worked to make the lives of students better, partly by fighting for resources for them. It is even rumored that Thelma personally subscribed to Playboy for the students, to provide them with some diversion from their labors at the New Book Shelf. If so, it may just have been brilliant marketing. In the years before and after her death, visiting alumni, many of whom had been very successful in business, spoke fondly of Thelma, and her impact on their education. This helped draw backing for the endowments that help support the collections today.
Barbara Chappell became Librarian in September of 1972, and left in January of 1974. She was a UT Library School graduate, and left Austin for Washington, DC, where she eventually became head of the United States Geological Survey's Reston library.
Martin Smith was recruited in October of 1974. He had his MLS from Maryland, and came from the USGS Reston library. He left in December 1981 to return to DC and to Smithsonian and Air and Space Museum, where he worked until his retirement.
Chestalene Pintozzi was the unit's Library Assistant under Martin, and completed her MLS from the University of Texas School of Library and Information Science. She was promoted to the Librarian's position in January of 1982 and stayed until August of 1984. Later she went to the University of Arizona Library, where she was Science and Engineering Librarian and later Director of Project Management and Assessment.
During this 12 year period (1972-84), the Geology Library was suffering from serious space problems. There was no high density storage facility yet, the 'backroom' space was filled to capacity with Bureau surplus materials and unprocessed gifts (which some viewed as dangerous, due to concerns with floor loading). It was a struggle to find resources for new services like GeoRef searching (done at the time at very high cost with a tele-type style machine and a 300-baud phone modem and thermal printer). Everyone was frustrated about some aspect of operations - there was no automated circulation yet, copiers were inadequate and took up too much space, there was no common catalog for the whole library system online, so a great deal of time was wasted walking from unit to unit, or searching in the main library catalog. There was also a student population boom in this period, and space was very a contentious issue. Nevertheless change was coming - by 1984, the Bureau was moving to its new facility, branch materials were being coded for automated circulation and the computer system and catalog were being extended to branch circulation desks, the endowment monies were beginning to make a difference in purchasing options, and the promise of even better computing systems was on the horizon.
Dennis Trombatore came in July 1985 from the University of Georgia, with an MLS from Louisiana State University. He was the beneficiary of many of these developments, and the pace of change began to accelerate.
Support for the Library
Naming the Library
In 1977, the library was listed as having three endowed funds: The Whitney Fund for paleontology, the Wendlandt fund for German language or translated German geology materials, and the Map Collection Fund. These funds were all small, $10,000 or less. After the Walter donation, the Map Collection fund was supplemented with funds from the Tobin Foundation in San Antonio, and the Tobin International Map Collection Fund was created. In the latter part of the 1980's during the crash of the energy business, it was discovered that the Walter Fund had suffered losses, and the Houston alumni community raised several hundred thousand dollars to bolster the fund.
In 2005, the Chernoff family and Carlotta Chernoff (BA 1992, MA 1995) set up the Chernoff Geophysics Fund, to honor Charlie Chernoff for his long career in geophysics. Faculty, staff, and alumni with the help of Mike Wiley (MA 1963, PhD 1970), the Barrow family, and others started the Library Hydrogeology Fund in 2008, and Debra Sue Trinque and others have pledged funds for the Library Climate Studies Fund, which should become available in 2012, bringing the total to 9 funds. Virtually all of this springs in some way from Thelma's early indoctrination of faculty and students to the necessity of support for information resources, and to the dedication and foresight of the faculty mentioned above and the many other faculty and alumni friends who have provided support and materials for the library over the years.
Here's a page from the department newsletter:
Bureau of Economic Geology
Adding to the pool of geologic information after 1909, when the Bureau of Economic Geology was established to succeed the Texas Mineral Survey, was the existence of a separate library under the control of the Bureau. This collection apparently was not part of the library services sharing program, though there was quite a bit of informal sharing of materials. The Bureau, as it is known, has had offices in a number of locations around and near campus.
Peter Flawn recalls that "on the Little Campus in old J Hall, the Bureau Library occupied a large room on the southwest corner of the first floor with perhaps 8 or 10 rows of floor to ceiling shelving that ran north-south. The door was kept locked but all of the research staff had keys. There was no check out system. We all took what we needed at the time and returned the books when we were finished. If what we wanted was missing, we just asked around. In those days, I used Interlibrary Loan a good deal. I don't remember if there was a list of what we had or any kind of catalog."
When the "new" Geology Building was dedicated in 1967, the Bureau occupied the top floor, where it remained until getting a new building in 1984 at the Balcones (now Pickle) Campus in North Austin. It appears from recollections and Thelma Guion's annual reports that the Bureau collection was stuffed into the "new" building's so called "Back Room," GEO 302D, along with duplicates from both collections. Apparently in 1984, these materials were disentangled and in 1984 the new Bureau facility sported a Reading Room / Data Center, encompassing well logs, all of which went to the Bureau at that point.
The Bureau's library is now primarily a current literature collection, recently supplemented by the addition of the library from the Institute for Geophysics. In the late 1980's, after a particularly serious turn-down in the Bureau's research funding, the decision was made to downsize the collection substantially. Most of these materials (several hundreds of cartons) were routed through the Walter Library for review, and many exciting new research materials (and long-lost collection items) were added to the collection. Staff at the Bureau with library connections included Mary McBride, Kay Forward, Roselle Girard, Jeff Thurwachter, Ed Garner, and Sigrid Clift, in whose portfolio it remains today.
Institute for Geophysics
Similarly, the Institute for Geophysics came to Austin from University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston in 1982, beginning a long search for permanent housing. At first they were housed in a small commercial building directly across I-35 from the end of the Mueller Airport runway, and next door to the bus station. The entire building shook vividly and conversations had to be suspended every few minutes as jet engines and plane bellies roared past the upstairs windows where the library was.
The Institute library was based on the collections of Lamar Worzel and Maurice Ewing, founding scientists at the Institute, and Josie York, the librarian at the time, was already fighting space issues. The space she was allocated demanded that materials be squeezed floor to ceiling in every conceivable manner, and access was barely adequate. Over the next 20 years, in a series of inadequate spaces off Mopac and later Steck in NW Austin, the Institute attempted to hang onto its library, but again, over time many hundreds of cartons of materials were routed to the Walter Library to be consolidated with the main collection.
After Josie returned to the Phillipines, the library passed to Larry Cook from 1991-1994, former Library Assistant in the Perry-Castañeda Library map collection, and later to Nancy Gemmell, who migrated to the Institute from Perry-Castañeda Library acquisitions while completing her MLS. After Nancy left to go to work at Austin Public Library, the collection was relegated to a series of Library School (I-School) student interns, and grew and contracted with various special projects being started but rarely finished.
When the Institute finally got a campus property of its own at the Pickle Campus, library holdings were consolidated with the remaining Bureau collection in the Bureau's Information Center. Again, the withdrawn materials were reviewed and consolidated in the Walter Library.
U.S. Geological Survey
In the 1970's and '80's, the United States Geological Survey/ Texas Water Office had a library in the Federal Building downtown. The library was very extensive and packed to the ceiling, which, considering that the library was in the wing that extended over 9th Street, made some people nervous.
The librarians were Charlotte "Rusty" Friebele, who retired around 1977, then Rosemary Tovar (later Jean) from 1977 to 1980. Patricia Tenner, Cynthia Kehoe, Vivian Carlson were in the library for short periods from about 1983 to about 1987. Julie Menard started in the Library as a student in 1987 and left about 1996. The last librarian was Ramona Azbill (later Traynor), about 1996 to about 2000.
The library moved to Cameron Road in 1988. After some years, the Survey moved again to the Cross Park Drive area, and then back to Cameron Road. Before the first two moves, big downsizings took place, with materials coming to the Walter Library for review. After 2000, the library was no longer staffed, and now is primarily a resource room for locally produced publication stocks.
Texas Water Commission
Similarly, the Texas Water Commission (now TCEQ, TNRIS and Texas Water Development Board) once had a large library collection with several librarians in the Stephen F. Austin Office Building near the Capitol. Initially they were on an upper floor, then moved to the basement, then subsequently to the current TCEQ facility off Parmer Lane. The head Librarian there for many years was Sylvia Von Fang, who by coincidence was once married to Martin Smith. Sylvia retired around 2004.
Berry, Margaret Catherine. Brick by Golden Brick: A History of Campus Buildings at the University of Texas at Austin, 1883-1993. Austin, Tex: LBCo, 1993.
Elgin, Robert Warren. A Study of the Map Collections in the University of Texas Libraries. Thesis (M.L.S.)--University of Texas, 1954.
Ex-students' Association of the University of Texas. Alcalde. Austin, Tex: Published by the former students of the University of Texas at Austin, 1913.
Moloney, Louis C. A History of the University Library at the University of Texas, 1883-1934. Thesis (D.L.S.)--Columbia University, 1970.
University of Texas at Austin. Newsletter. Austin, Tex: The Dept, 1968.
Young, Keith. History of Geology at the University of Texas. Austin: University of Texas, 1967. (Bureau of Economic Geology. Geological circular GC-67-3)