Gems and Gemology- compiled by Melanie Bazer & Jesse Casana, rev. 6/2010, 4/2011

Gems are precious or semi-precious stones, crystals or other substances whose color and sparkle can be enhanced by special cutting. Gemology is the science of gems. This guide is prepared for the assistance of students in GEO 347k, Gem and Gem Minerals, and refers (with the exception of online resources) to materials available in the Walter Geology Library, The University of Texas at Austin.

Online Resources

Amethyst Galleries' Mineral Gallery : <>

Atlas of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks, Minerals, & Textures . Geology Department of the University of North Carolina. "Virtual Geology" Project.

GEO 347K: Gems & Gem Minerals. Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin.

Gemological Institute of America (GIA). <>

Glenn and Martha Vargas Gem & Mineral Collection . At UT Austin's Jackson School of Geosciences. <>

International School of Gemology. An independent gemology school created in order to provide quality education to a far greater number of people by offering courses over the internet. <>

Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom . <>

National Gemstone . "Dealers specializing in world class independently graded American Gemological Laboratories (AGL) pre-embargo Burma ruby and sapphire, Burma spinel, Colombian emerald, collector gems and Gemological Institute of America (GIA) graded fancy colored diamonds.

Databases- Access restricted to UT faculty, staff, and students.

GeoRef . Index devoted primarily to Geology related publications. American Geological Institute, 1669-present.

Journal Citation Reports (JCR): Science Edition. Useful for analyzing journal importance.

Web of Science . Includes access to Science Citation Index Expanded. Covers many disciplines of Science. Especially useful for citation research.


Gems and Gemology. Gemological Institute of America 5345 Armada Dr. Carlsbad, CA 92008.
TS 720 G4 GEOL

Lapidary Journal. Devon Office Center, Suite 201 60 Chestnut Ave. Devon, PA 19333-1312
NK 7300 L36 GEOL

Australian Gemmologist. Gemmological Association of Australia, PO Box 35 South Yarva, Vic. 3141, Australia
QE 392.5 A9 A977 GEOL


Manutchehr-Danai, Mohsen. Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. Berlin: Springer, 2009.
QE 392 M29 2009 GEOL

Read, P. G. Dictionary of Gemmology. Boston: Butterworth Scientific, 1988
TS 722 R43 1988 GEOL Reference

Shipley, Robert M. Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. Santa Monica, California: Gemological Inst. of America, 1974.
TN 980 S5 1974 GEOL Reference

Encyclopedias and Handbooks

Arem, Joel E. Gems and Jewelry. Phoenix, AZ: Geoscience Press, 1992.
TS 752 A74 1992 GEOL

Arem, Joel E. Color Encyclopedia of Gemstones. 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987.
QE 392 A69 1987 GEOL Reference

Bariand, Peter. The Larousse Encyclopedia of Precious Gems. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold, 1992.
TS 722 B3713 1992 GEOL Reference

Cipriani, Curzio and Alessandro Bonelli. Simon and Schuster's Guide to Precious Stones. edited by Kennie Lyman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
QE 392 A69 1987 GEOL Reference

Jacobson, Mark Ivan. Guidebook to the pegmatites of Western Australia. Carlisle, W.A. : Hesperian Press, 2007.
QE 462 P4 J33 2007 GEOL

Liddicoat, Richard T. Handbook of Gem Identification 12th ed. rev. Santa Monica, CA: Geological Institute of America, 1989.
QE 392 L5 1989 GEOL Reference

Marcum, David. The Down Jones-Irwin Guide to Fine Gems and Jewelry. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1986.
HD 9696 A2 M37 1986 GEOL Reference

Matlins, Antoinette L.; A.C. Bonanno. Gem Identification Made Easy. South Woodstock, VT: Gemstone Press, 1989.
QE 392 M33 1989 GEOL Reference

Matlins, Antoinette L. The Pearl Book: the definitive buying guide. Woodstock, VT: Gemstone Press, 1999.
TS 755 P3 M38 1999 GEOL

O'Donoghue, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of Minerals and Gemstones. London: Orbis Publishing, 1985.
QE 363.2 E5 1985 GEOL

Scovil, Jeffrey. Photographing Minerals, Fossils and Lapidary Materials. Tucson, AZ: Geoscience Press, 1996.
TR 732.5 S38 1996 GEOL

Sevdermish, M.and Mashiah, A. The Dealer's Book of Gems and Diamonds. Israel: Kal Printing House, 1996.
QE 392 S4913 1996 v.1-2 GEOL

Sinkankas, John. Gemstone and Mineral Data Book. Tucson, AZ: Geoscience Press, 1988.
TS 752.5 S56 1988 GEOL Reference

Ward, Fred. Gem Care. Bethesda, MD: Gem Book Publishers, 1995.
TS 756 W37 1995 GEOL

Webster, Robert and E. Alan Jobbins. Gemmologists' Compendium. London: N.A.G. Press, 1998.
QE 392 W36 1998 GEOL

Wise, Richard W. Secrets of the Gem Trade: the Connoisseur's Guide to Precious Gemstones. Lenox, MA. : Brunswick House Press, 2003.
NK 5530 W57 2003 GEOL

Zucker, B. Gems and Jewels: a Connoisseur's Guide. New York: Thornes and Hudson, 1984.
NK 5525 Z83 1984 GEOL


Gubelin, E.J. and J. Koivala.Photoatlas of Inclusions in Gemstones. Zurich: ABC Edition, 1986.
QE 392 G8313 1986 GEOL

Hurlburt, Cornelius S. and George S. Switzer. Gemology. New York: Wiley, 1979.
QE 392 H87 GEOL

Keller, A.S., ed.Proceedings of the International Gemological Symposium 1991 : Facing the Future. Santa Monica CA: Gemological Institute of America, 1992.
QE 392 I573 1991 GEOL

Keller, Peter C. Gemstones and Their Origins. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
QE 392 K39 1990 GEOL

Kievlenko, Eugenii Ya. Geology of Gems. Littleton, CO: Ocean Pictures, 2003.
QE 392 K475 2003 GEOL

Nassau, Kurt. Gemstone Enhancement: Heat, Irradiation, Impregnation, Dyeing, And Other Treatments Which Alter The Appearance Of Gemstones, And The Detection Of Such Treatments. London ; Boston : Butterworths, 1984.
TS 756 N37 1984 Geology Library

Nassau, Kurt. The Physics and Chemistry of Color. New York: Wiley, 1983.
QC 495 N35 1983 GEOL

O'Donoghue, Michael and Louise Joyner. Identification of Gemstones. New York: Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.
QE 392 O34 2003 GEOL

Pedersen, Maggie Campbell. Gem and Ornamental Materials of Organic Origin. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 2004.
TT 857 P43 2003 PCL Stacks

Read, Peter G. Gemmology. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999 (2nd ed.).
TS 752 R44 1999 GEOL

Van Landlingham, S. L. ed. Geology of World Gem Deposits. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.
QE 392 G53 1984 GEOL

Webster, R. and Read, P.G. Gems : Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification. 5th ed. London: Butterworth - Heinemann, 1994.
QE 392 W37 1994 GEOL

Zeitner, June Culp. Gem and Lapidary Materials for cutters, collectors and jewelers. Tucson, AZ: Geoscience Press, 1996.
TS 752 Z45 1996 GEOL

Videos and DVDs

Gems of the Americas. GIA Training Video. Gemological Institute of America. 1985.

Gemstones of America. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 1991.
DVD 8021

Mogok: Valley of Rubies. Gemological Institute of America, CA. 1993.

The Stewart Tourmaline Story. Millennium, Inc., Pala, CA (GIA). 1992.

Specific Gem Materials


Poinar, George O. Life in Amber. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1992.
QE 742 P65 1992 GEOL

Rice, Patty C. Amber: the Golden Gem of the Ages. New York: Kosciuszko Foundation, 1987.
QE 391 A5 R52 1987 GEOL

Corundum (also sapphire and ruby)

Barlow, Alfred Ernest. Corundum; its occurence, distribution, explotation, and uses. Ottowa: Government Printing Bureau, 1915.
557.1 C16M no.56-57 GEOL

Harshaw, Lou. The Rubies of Cowee Valley, Franklin, NC and other Native Gems and MIneral Locations in Macon County, NC. Ashville, NC: Hexagon Co., 1973.
QE 394 R8 H3 GEOL

Hughes, Richard. Ruby & Sapphire. Colorado: RWH Publishers, 1997.
TS 755 R82 H84 1997 GEOL

Voynick, Stephen M. The Great American Sapphire. Missoula, MT: Mountian Press Pub. Co., 1985.
TN 997 S24 V69 1985 GEOL


Copeland, Lawrence L. Diamonds: Famous, Notable, and Unique. Los Angeles: Gemological Inst. of America, 1974.
TS 753 C6 1974 GEOL

Cuellar, Fred. How to Buy a Diamond. Naperville, IL: Casablanca Press, 1998.
TS 753 C83 1998 GEOL

Davies, Gordon. Diamond. Bristol: A. Hilger, 1984.
TN 990 D38 1984 GEOL

Dickenson, Joan Younger. The Book of Diamonds: Their History and Romance from Ancient India to Modern Times. New York: Crown Publishers, 1965.
TS 753 D5 1965 GEOL

Field, J.E. The Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamond. San Diego, CA: Academic Press Inc., 1992.
QE 393 P766 1992 GEOL

Gemological Institute of America. The Diamond Dictionary. Santa Monica, CA. Gem. Inst. of America, 1977.
TS 753 G4 1977 GEOL

The GIA Diamond Dictionary. Santa Monica, CA: Gemological Institute of America, 1993.
TS 753 G4 1993 GEOL

Legrand, Jacques. Diamonds: Myth, Magic, Reality. New York: Crown Publishers, 1980.
-Q- TS 753 L43 1980 GEOL

The Nature of Diamonds. Cambridge, UK and American Museum of Natural History, 1997.
TS 753 N38 1997 FINE ARTS

Newman, Renée. Diamond handbook : a practical guide to diamond evaluation. Los Angeles : International Jewelry Publications, 2008.
TS 753 N44 2008 GEOL

Orlov, Yu.L. The Mineralogy of the Diamond. New York: Wiley, 1973.
QE 393 O6913 GEOL

Treated diamonds. Shigley, James E., editor. Carlsbad, Californing : Gemological Institute of America, 2008.
TS 753 T63 2008

Wagner, Percy Albert. The Diamond Fields of Southern Africa. Cape Town: C. Struik, 1971.
TN 991 W3 1971 GEOL

Weber, Lewis Sheldon. Buying a Diamond? Know How!. New York: Gotham Publishing Co., 1951.
549.2 W388B GEOL

Emerald and Beryl (also aquamarine)

Emerald : The Most Valuable Beryl, The Most Precious Gemstone (English edition of extraLapis no. 21 Smaragde der Welt). East Hampton, CT : Lapis International, 2002.
QE 394 E5 S6313 2002 Geology Library

Harshaw, Richard. In Search of the Scarce Gem Hiddenite and the Emeralds of North Carolina. Ashville, NC: Hexagon Co., 1974.
TN 997 E5 H37 1974 GEOL

Jacobson, Mark I. Antero Aquamarines: minerals from the Mount Antero - White Mountain Region, Chaffee County, Colorado. Couer d'Alene, ID: L.R.Ream Publishing, 1993.
QE 375.5 C6 J33 1993 GEOL

Sinkankas, John. Emeralds and other Beryls. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Co., 1981.
QE 394 E5 S56 GEOL

Sinkankas, John. Beryl. Boston: Butterworths, 1986.
QE 391 B6 S57 1986 GEOL

Snee, Lawrence W. Emeralds of Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan:
Geological Survey of Pakistan, 1989.
TN 997 E5 K39 1989 GEOL

Feldspar (also moonstone, orthoclase, microline, sunstone, and labradorite)

Smith, Joseph V. Feldspar Minerals. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
QE 391 F3 S63 1988 v.1 GEOL

Garnet (also carbuncle)

Rouse, John D. Garnet. Boston: Butterworths, 1986.
QE 391 G37 R68 1986 GEOL


Beck, Russell J. New Zealand Jade. Wellington: Reed, 1984.
QE 394 J3 B43 1984 GEOL

California Jade: A Collection of Reprints. Sacramento: California Division of Mines and Geology, 1976.
QE 89 A1174 no.49 GEOL

Desautels, Paul E. The Jade Kingdom. New York: Van Nostrand Rienhold, 1986.
QE 394 J3 D47 1986 GEOL

Palmer, J.P. Jade. London: Spring Books, 1967.
NK 5750 P3 GEOL

Zara, Louis. Jade. New York: Walker, 1969.
NK 5750 Z3 GEOL


Muller, Helen. Jet. London: Butterworths, 1987.
QE 394 J46 M85 1987 GEOL


Eyles, Wilfred Charles. The Book of Opals. Rutland, VT: Tuttle, 1964.
549.6 EY47B GEOL

Murphy, E.F. They Struck Opal!. Sydney: Associated General Publications, 1948.
TN 997 O7 M8 GEOL


Fern, Alexander. Pearls: Natural, Cultured, and Imitation. London: Butterworths, 1986.
HD 9678 P4 F37 1986 GEOL

Kunz, George Frederick. The Book of the Pearl: the History, Art, Science, and Industry of the Queen of Gems. New York: The Century Co., 1908.
NK 7680 K8 GEOL

Matlins, Antoinette L. The Pearl Book: the definitive buying guide. Woodstock, VT: Gemstone Press, 1999.
TS 755 P3 M38 1999 GEOL

Newman, Renée. Pearl Buying Guide: How to Evaluate, Identify, and Select Pearls & Pearl Jewelry. Los Angeles : International Jewelry Publications, 2004.
TS 755 P3 N495 2004 GEOL

Quartz (also carnelian, chalcedony, jasper, agate, amethyst, tiger's eye, aventurine, and citrine)

Balzer, Reinhard... et al. Amethyst : uncommon vintage. Denver, Colo.: Lithographie, Ltd., 2012.
QE 394 A4 A44 2012

Dake, H.C. The Agate Book, including a description of agate filled thunder eggs; A Handbook for the Agate Collector and Cutter. Portland, OR: Mineralogist Pub. Co., 1951.
QE 391 A3 D3 GEOL

Lauf, R. J. Collector's guide to quartz and other silica minerals. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Pub., 2012.
QE 391 Q2 L38 2012 GEOL

Leiper, Hugh. The Agates of North America. San Deigo: The Lapidary Journal, 1966.
QE 391 A3 L4 1966 GEOL

O'Donoghue, Michael. Quartz. London: Butterworths, 1987
QE 391 Q2 O3 1987 GEOL

Praszkier, Tomasz, Jacek Bogdański, Rafał Siuda, Michał Sachanbiński, and Zbigniew Ramotowski. Agates from Płóczki Górne, Lower Silesia, Poland. 2011.
-Q- QE 391 Q2 P73 2011 GEOL

Zenz, Johann. Agates. In collaboration with Rainer Bode, Stefan Hamann, Steffen Jahn; with texts by Robin Field ... [et al.] ; translated by Angelika Filz. Haltern, Germany : Bode, 2005 -.
TN 997 A35 Z46 2005 V.1-3


MacInnes, Daniel. Synthetic Gems and Allied Crystal Manufacture. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corp., 1973
TP 873 M3 1973 GEOL

Nassau, Kurt. Gem Enhancement. Boston: Butterworths, 1984.
TS 756 N37 1984 GEOL

Nassu, Kurt. Gems Made by Man. Padnor, PA: Chilton Book Co., 1980.
TP 873 N37 1980 GEOL

O'Donoghue, Michael. A Guide to Man-Made Gemstones. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983.
TP 873 O34 1983 GEOL


Christiansen, Eric H. The Geology and Geochemistry of Cenozoic Topaz Ryolites from the Western United States. Boulder CO: GSA, 1986.
QE 1 G2197 no.205 GEOL

Hoover, Donald P. Topaz. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.
QE 391 T6 H66 1992 GEOL


Dietrich, Richard Vincent. The Tourmaline Group. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
QE 391 T7 D54 1985 GEOL

Tourmaline : A Gemstone Spectrum (English edition of extraLapis no. 6 Turmalin). East Hampton, CT : Lapis International, 2002.
QE 391 T7 T8613 2002 Geology Library


Branson, Oscar T. Turquoise,: the Gem of the Centuries. Santa Fe: Treasure Chest Pub., 1975.
-Q- QE 394 T8 B7 GEOL

Hammons, Lee. Southwestern Turquoise: the Indian's Sky Stone. Glendale, AZ: Arizona Maps, 1973.
QE 394 T8 H34 GEOL

Jacka, Jerry D. Turquoise Treasures: the Splendor of Southwest Indian Art. Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Pub. Co., 1975.
E 78 S7 J18 GEOL

Pouge, Joseph E. The Turquoise: A Study of its History, Mineralogy, Geology, Ethnology, Archaeology, Mythology, Folklore, and Technology. Glorieta, NM: Rio Grande Press, 1972.
QE 394 T8 P6 1972 GEOL


Murthy, M.ed. Zircon: A Collection of Research Papers. Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1969.
QE 391 Z7 Z57 GEOL

Gem Cutting and Faceting

Cox, Jack R. Advanced Cabachon Cutting: a gem cutter's handbook. Baldwin Park, CA, Gem Guides Book Co. 1986
TS 752.5 C692 1986 GEOL

Cox, Jack R. Cabachon Cutting: a gem cutter's handbook. Baldwin Park, CA, Gem Guides Book Co. 1986
TS 752.5 C69 1986 GEOL

Kraus, Pansy D. Introduction to Lapidary: Rock Tumbling, Cabochon Cutting, Faceting, Gem Carving, and Other Special Techniques. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Co., 1987.
TS 752.5 K73 1987 GEOL

Quick, Lelande; Hugh Leiper. Gemcraft: How to Cut and Polish Gemstones. New York: Chilton Book Co., 1959.
TS 752 Q5 1959 GEOL

Sinkankas, John. Gem Cutting: A Lapidary's Manual. New York: Van Nostrand Rienhold, 1984.
TS 752.5 S55 1984 GEOL

Vargas, Glenn. Diagrams for Faceting. Thermal, CA: Vargas, 1975.
TS 752.5 V29 v.1-3 GEOL

Vargas, Glenn. Faceting for Amateurs. Palm Desert, CA: Desert Printers, 1969.
TS 752.5 V3 GEOL

Gem Values and Testing

Arem, Joel E. Gems and Jewelry. Phoenix, AZ: GeoScience Press Inc., 1992.
TS 752 A74 1992 GEOL

Anderson, B.W. Gem Testing. London: Butterworths, 1980.
TS 756 A58 1980 GEOL

Anderson, B.W. The Spectroscope and Gemmology. Woodstock, VT: GemStone Press, 1998
QE 396 S65 A53 1998 GEOL

Epstein, David S. The Gem Merchant: how to be one, how to deal with one. Piermont, NY : Gem Market Publications, 2003.
HD 9747 A2 E67 2003 GEOL

Joseph, Ralph S. The Jeweler's Guide to Effective Insurance Appraising. Northbrook, IL: Gemworld International, Inc., 1996
TS 756 J68 1996 GEOL

Liddicoat, Richard T. The Jeweler's Manual. Los Angeles: Gemological Inst. of America, 1974.
TS 725 L52 GEOL

Liddicoat, Richard T. Handbook of Gem Identification. Los Angeles: Gemological Inst. of America, 1970.
QE 392 L5 1970 GEOL Reference

Miller, Anna. Standard Catalogue of Gem Values. Prescott, AZ: GeoScience Press, 1994.
TS 752 M55 1994 GEOL

Newman, Renée. Ruby, Sapphire, & Emerald Buying Guide. Los Angeles: International Jewelry Publications, 2000.
TS 755 R82 N483 2000 GEOL